Aβ1-42 stimulates actin polymerization in hippocampal neurons through Rac1 and Cdc42 Rho GTPases
ABSTRACT A number of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, are characterized by abnormalities in the neuronal cytoskeleton. Here, we find that the enhancement in actin polymerization induced by fibrillar amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) is associated with increased activity of Rac1/Cdc42 Rho GTPases. Rac1 upregulation involves the participation of Tiam1, a Rac guanine-nucleotide exchange factor, where Abeta exposure leads to Tiam1 activation by a Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism. These results point to Rho GTPases as one of the targets in Abeta-induced neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease pathology, with a role in mediating changes in the actin cytoskeletal dynamics.
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ABSTRACT: High serum/plasma cholesterol levels have been suggested as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). Some reports, mostly retrospective epidemiological studies, have observed a decreased prevalence of AD in patients taking the cholesterol lowering drugs, statins. The strongest evidence causally linking cholesterol to AD is provided by experimental studies showing that adding/reducing cholesterol alters amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta-protein (Aβ) levels. However, there are problems with the cholesterol-AD hypothesis. Cholesterol levels in serum/plasma and brain of AD patients do not support cholesterol as a causative factor in AD. Prospective studies on statins and AD have largely failed to show efficacy. Even the experimental data are open to interpretation given that it is well-established that modification of cholesterol levels has effects on multiple proteins, not only APP and Aβ. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to examine the above-mentioned issues and discuss the pros and cons of the cholesterol-AD hypothesis, and the involvement of other lipids in the mevalonate pathway, such as isoprenoids and oxysterols, in AD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Journal of Neurochemistry 12/2013; DOI:10.1111/jnc.12637 · 4.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neurite outgrowth is mediated by dynamic changes of the cytoskeleton and is largely controlled by Rho GTPases and their regulators. Here, we show that the polarity protein Scribble controls PC12 cell neurite outgrowth in response to nerve growth factor. Scribble knockdown decreases neurite numbers and increases neurite length. This effect is linked to TrkA the cognate receptor for NGF as pharmacological inhibition of phosphorylated TrkA (pTrkA) reduces Scribble expression. Moreover, Scribble forms a complex with the MAPK components ERK1/2 in a growth factor dependent manner. In RNAi experiments where Scribble expression is efficiently depleted sustained ERK1/2 phosphorylation is reduced. Conversely, siRNA with intermediate Scribble silencing efficiency fails to match this effect indicating that ERK1/2 activation depends on basic Scribble protein levels. Finally, Scribble translocates to the plasma membrane in response to growth factor where it complexes with HRas and Rac1 suggesting that the phenotype activated by loss of Scribble may be a result of altered GTPase activity. Together, these results demonstrate a novel role for Scribble in neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells.European journal of cell biology 07/2013; 92(6-7). DOI:10.1016/j.ejcb.2013.07.002 · 3.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The neuronal cytoskeleton regulates numerous processes that occur in normal homeostasis. Under pathological conditions such as those of Alzheimer's disease (AD), major alterations in cytoskeleton organization have been observed and changes in both microtubules and actin filaments have been reported. Many neurodegenerative consequences of AD are linked to the production and accumulation of amyloid peptides (Aβ) and their oligomers, produced from the internal cleavage of the amyloid-β protein precursor. We previously reported that fibrillar Aβ1-42 (fAβ) treatment of hippocampal neurons induced an increase in Rac1 and Cdc42 activities linking fAβ effects with changes in actin dynamics. Here we show fAβ-induces increased activity of PAK1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 5, and that p21-activated kinase (PAK1) activation targets the LIMK1-cofilin signaling pathway. Increased cofilin dephosphorylation under conditions of enhanced LIM-Kinase 1 (LIMK1) activity suggests that fAβ co-stimulates bifurcating pathways impacting cofilin phosphorylation. Overexpression of slingshot (SSH) prevents the augment of F-actin induced by fAβ after 24 h, suggesting that fAβ-induced changes in actin assembly involve both LIMK1 and SSH. These results suggest that fAb may alter the PAK1/LIMK1/cofilin axis and therefore actin organization in AD.Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 12/2011; 29(1):63-77. DOI:10.3233/JAD-2012-101575 · 3.61 Impact Factor