Altered innate and adaptive immune responses in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa.
ABSTRACT The clinical improvement of hidradenitis suppurativa reported in a small number of patients with antitumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF)-alpha therapies supports the hypothesis for an altered immune response in these patients.
To evaluate the state of the innate and adaptive immune responses in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa.
Fifty-three patients and six healthy controls were studied. Blood was sampled and subpopulations of lymphocytes were analysed by flow cytometry; monocytes were isolated and their function was evaluated from the concentrations of TNF-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 in supernatants of cell cultures after triggering with endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides). TNF-alpha and IL-6 were estimated by an enzyme immunoassay.
CD3/CD8 lymphocytes were lower in patients with involvement of the perineum than in controls; patients with involvement of the breast had higher levels of natural killer (NK) cells than controls. A negative correlation was found between years lapsing since initial presentation of lesions of hidradenitis and the percentage of NK cells. Monocytes isolated from healthy volunteers were more active for the secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-6 than those of patients with hidradenitis suppurativa.
A reduction in the percentage of NK cells over time and a lower monocyte response to triggering by bacterial components is observed in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa. Further research is needed to clarify if these changes are connected to an autoimmune mechanism in the pathogenesis of hidradenitis suppurativa.
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ABSTRACT: IntroductionHidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic skin disease which causes a great impact in the quality of life. Multiple therapeutic options have been proposed, and recently the potential use of biological drugs in severe cases has been postulated. Material and MethodsA retrospective study from seven tertiary Spanish centers reviewing the charts of patients with HS treated with biological drugs was performed. Retrieved information included epidemiological data, clinical features, pain intensity, Hurley stage, laboratory data and therapeutic outcomes. ResultsNineteen patients were included in the study; 10 men (52.6%) and 9 women. Eight patients (42%) showed a Hurley severity stage II and 11 a stage III (57.8%). Adalimumab was prescribed as the first biological treatment in nine out of 19 cases (47.3%), whereas infliximab was prescribed in seven cases (36.8%), ustekinumab in two cases (10.5%) and etanercept in one (5.2%). A complete response was observed in three patients (two cases with infliximab and one case with ustekinumab), a partial improvement in 10 patients and in six patients no clinical improvement was noted. One patient referred worsening of the skin symptoms. In 6 cases, a second biological treatment was prescribed. In three of such cases, a partial improvement was noted, whereas in three cases no clinical improvement was observed. In two cases a switch to a third biological drug was indicated, with a partial improvement in one case. Discussion and Conclusions Biological drugs could be a potential and effective therapeutic option for patients with severe HS. Complete and persistent clinical responses are rarely obtained (15%) and partial responses are achieved in approximately 50% of patients. No specific markers for a therapeutic response have been identified. No definitive conclusions regarding the most effective biological drug for HS could be drawn. Higher dosage schedules seem to be associated with higher response rates. The lack of response of one particular drug does not preclude a potential efficacy to another biological treatment.Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 03/2014; · 2.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), also known as acne inversa, is a chronic follicular occlusive skin disorder characterized by recurrent abscesses, draining sinuses, and scarring, with a multifactorial pathogenesis. The answer to the question whether HS may be considered a systemic disease relies on the presence of accompanying systemic manifestations, on the proof of association with other diseases or conditions, and on the occurrence of systemic implications. We address these questions based on a systemic review of the existing literature. There are several reports in the literature of the coexistence of HS with other diseases, including pyoderma gangrenosum, PASH syndrome, Adamantiades-Behcet's disease, spondylarthropathy, Crohn's disease, SAPHO, pachyonychia congenita, Dowling-Degos disease, and the keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome. Case series exist only for Crohn's disease, while most other reports are anecdotal, thus, not providing high-quality scientific evidence. Based on well-designed studies, HS has been associated with the metabolic syndrome and with excess body weight or obesity. The link between HS and systemic associations may be attributed to common genetic or environmental factors or shared inflammatory pathways.Clinics in dermatology 01/2013; 32(3):397-408. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory disease of follicular occlusion characterized by boils, sinus tracts, fistulae, and scarring. It has a significant underestimated morbidity. Antimicrobial, immunosuppressive, anti-androgenic, and surgical approaches have been used with varying results. Knowledge of the pathogenesis of HS is fragmented, and treatment choices have hitherto been empiric without an exact understanding of the scientific basis for their use. Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors have shown promise in the treatment of HS in recent years, and the concept of HS as an immunological condition has come to the fore. The focus of this review is to discuss the immunological abnormalities underpinning HS as elucidated to date.International journal of dermatology 06/2014; · 1.23 Impact Factor