The expanding role of leukotriene receptor antagonists in chronic asthma.
ABSTRACT To provide a comprehensive review of studies that evaluate the effects of leukotriene receptor antagonists in adult chronic asthma.
A literature search using MEDLINE, Clinical Evidence, and the Cochrane Library was performed using the following keywords: randomized controlled trial, asthma, cysteinyl leukotriene, leukotriene receptor antagonist, antileukotriene, montelukast, zafirlukast, pranlukast, inflammation, lung function, exacerbations, and symptoms.
Relevant peer-reviewed articles (mostly randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and reviews) published up to July 2006 were selected and extracted.
Leukotriene receptor antagonists are beneficial across a range of asthma severities and may have a particular role in exercise-induced asthma, aspirin-sensitive asthma, and individuals with concomitant allergic rhinitis.
In the management of chronic asthma, leukotriene receptor antagonists have emerged as a useful oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory adjunct both as monotherapy and in combination with other classes of drugs. Monitoring their effects in terms of lung function alone may result in clinicians missing beneficial effects on inflammatory biomarkers, airway hyperresponsiveness, and exacerbations.
- SourceAvailable from: Peter K Jeffery[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Examination of bronchoalveolar lavage, induced sputum, and peripheral blood indicate that cysteinyl leukotriene receptor blockers decrease inflammatory cells in asthma but these do not examine airway tissue per se. Our objective was to determine the effect of montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, on airway tissue inflammatory cells by direct bronchoscopic examination of the bronchial mucosa. Adult subjects with mild asthma (pre-bronchodilator FEV(1)> or =70% predicted; PC(20) of < or =4 mg/mL) were given 10mg/day oral montelukast (N=38) or placebo (N=37) for 6 weeks. Bronchial mucosal eosinophils and mast cells were identified and counted. Change from baseline in numbers of biopsy EG2+ ("activated") eosinophils was the primary endpoint; numbers of total (chromotrope 2R+) eosinophils and (tryptase+) mast cells were secondary. Unexpectedly, there were many patients with zero EG2+ eosinophils at baseline. There was a within-group decrease in EG2+ cells, from 13.54 cells/mm (at baseline) to 0.79 cells/mm at 6 weeks in the montelukast group (LS mean change; 95% confidence interval=-13.59 [-25.45, -1.74]cells/mm; P<0.05), a change not observed in the placebo group (-1.17 [-13.26, 10.91]cells/mm; NS). The zero-inflated Poisson statistical model demonstrated that montelukast significantly reduced post-treatment EG2+ cells by 80% compared with placebo (95% CI [70.6-86.8%]; P<0.0001). The data for total eosinophils showed similar changes. The reduction in mast cell numbers was 12% (95% CI [7.9, 16.0]; P<0.0001). Direct examination of airway tissue confirms that montelukast decreases the number of eosinophils and mast cells in asthma.Respiratory medicine 02/2009; 103(7):995-1003. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective. To review issues related to asthma in sickle cell disease and management strategies. Data Source. A systematic review of pertinent original research publications, reviews, and editorials was undertaken using MEDLlNE, the Cochrane Library databases, and CINAHL from 1947 to November 2010. Search terms were [asthma] and [sickle cell disease]. Additional publications considered relevant to the sickle cell disease population of patients were identified; search terms included [sickle cell disease] combined with [acetaminophen], [pain medications], [vitamin D], [beta agonists], [exhaled nitric oxide], and [corticosteroids]. Results. The reported prevalence of asthma in children with sickle cell disease varies from 2% to approximately 50%. Having asthma increases the risk for developing acute chest syndrome , death, or painful episodes compared to having sickle cell disease without asthma. Asthma and sickle cell may be linked by impaired nitric oxide regulation, excessive production of leukotrienes, insufficient levels of Vitamin D, and exposure to acetaminophen in early life. Treatment of sickle cell patients includes using commonly prescribed asthma medications; specific considerations are suggested to ensure safety in the sickle cell population. Conclusion. Prospective controlled trials of drug treatment for asthma in patients who have both sickle cell disease and asthma are urgently needed.Anemia 01/2011; 2011:740235.
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ABSTRACT: We recently reported that phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) directly regulates airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction by modulating Ca(2+) oscillations. Because ASM contraction plays a critical role in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) of asthma, the aim of the present study was to determine whether targeting PI3Kγ in ASM cells could suppress AHR in vitro and in vivo. Intranasal administration into mice of interleukin-13 (IL-13; 10 μg per mouse), a key pathophysiologic cytokine in asthma, induced AHR after 48 h, as assessed by invasive tracheostomy. Intranasal administration of a broad-spectrum PI3K inhibitor or a PI3Kγ-specific inhibitor 1 h before AHR assessment attenuated IL-13 effects. Airway responsiveness to bronchoconstrictor agonists was also examined in precision-cut mouse lung slices pretreated without or with IL-13 for 24 h. Acetylcholine and serotonin dose-response curves indicated that IL-13-treated lung slices had a 40 to 50% larger maximal airway constriction compared with controls. Furthermore, acetylcholine induced a larger initial Ca(2+) transient and increased Ca(2+) oscillations in IL-13-treated primary mouse ASM cells compared with control cells, correlating with increased cell contraction. As expected, PI3Kγ inhibitor treatment attenuated IL-13-augmented airway contractility of lung slices and ASM cell contraction. In both control and IL-13-treated ASM cells, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of PI3Kγ by 70% only reduced the initial Ca(2+) transient by 20 to 30% but markedly attenuated Ca(2+) oscillations and contractility of ASM cells by 50 to 60%. This report is the first to demonstrate that PI3Kγ in ASM cells is important for IL-13-induced AHR and that acute treatment with a PI3Kγ inhibitor can ameliorate AHR in a murine model of asthma.Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 04/2012; 342(2):305-11. · 3.89 Impact Factor