Comparison of three techniques for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections in dogs with urolithiasis

Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, and Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Guru Angad Dev and Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab, India.
Journal of Small Animal Practice (Impact Factor: 1.09). 01/2007; 47(12):727-32. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2006.00169.x
Source: PubMed


To identify an appropriate sampling technique(s) to accurately detect the bacteria causing urinary tract infections in dogs with urolithiasis.
Twenty-one dogs with urolithiasis were included in the study. Three types of samples were taken from each dog. Urine was collected by cystocentesis, and a urinary bladder mucosal biopsy and urolith were retrieved during cystotomy. The samples were then cultured on blood agar and MacConkey's agar to identify the bacteria associated with urinary tract infections.
Bacterial urinary tract infection was found in 16 cases (76.19 per cent). The most prevalent bacteria found to cause urinary tract infection were Escherichia coli (n=7), followed by coagulase-positive Staphylococcus species (n=4), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=2), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=2) and Proteus mirabilis (n=1). In the case of a positive urine culture, the same bacteria were also cultured from the urinary bladder mucosal biopsy alone or from both the urinary bladder mucosal biopsy and urolith. However, in the case of a negative urine culture, bacteria were found to be present in the urinary bladder mucosal biopsy or urolith cultures in 23.81 per cent of dogs. The uroliths that gave positive culture results were either infection-induced uroliths composed of struvite and calcium carbonate phosphate, ammonium acid urate only or metabolic uroliths composed of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, or calcium phosphate only. All the uroliths that gave negative culture results were metabolic uroliths composed of calcium oxalate and/or calcium phosphate, and uric acid and calcium phosphate.
When the culture from the urine obtained by cystocentesis is negative, cultures of urinary bladder mucosal biopsy and urolith are recommended in dogs with urolithiasis in order to accurately assess the microbiological status of the urinary tract.

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    • "Urine culture is indicated in all cases of urolithiasis. Infection has been documented in 75% of dogs with cystic calculi when the results of urine, bladder mucosal biopsy, and urolith culture are combined (Gatoria et al., 2006). Specialised tests may be recommended for specific urolith types (e.g., tests for hyperadrenocorticism in patients with calcium oxalate uroliths). "
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    ABSTRACT: Urolithiasis is a nutritional disease that affects domestic carnivores. Past and recent literature on urolithiasis was reviewed for information on anatomical occurrence, physiology of urine formation, prevalence, mineral composition, clinical signs, laboratory findings, dissolution therapy, surgery and prevention of urolithiasis. The acquired knowledge of complexed and multifaceted urolithiasis is a tremendous achievement towards the treatment and control of the disease. However, eradication of the disease is the most challenging as it requires total overhaul of all the factors that are responsible for the formation of uroliths. © 2015, Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine. All rights reserved.
    Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 03/2015; 18(1):1-18. DOI:10.15547/bjvm.806
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    • "Antibiotic sensitivity of the urine samples was obtained by using disk-diffusion (Kirby-Bauer method) method as per Cruickshank (1975) and Quantitative urine culture of bacteria was expressed as CFU/ml (Gatoria, 2006). Total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, volume of packed red cells, total leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count, platelet count, Creatinine, albumin were estimated as per the standard techniques. "
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    • "In veterinary medicine, Andrade et al (2012) reported that pure culture of P. mirabilis was among the isolates cultured from sheep and goats showing clinical signs of caseous lymphadenitis especially from the prescapular lymph nodes. According to Gatoria et al (2006), P. mirabilis is the aetiological agent causing urinary tract infections in dogs with urolithiasis as they were isolated and cultured from urine, bladder mucosal biopsy and urolith through cytocentesis and cystotomy respectively. Co-infection of P. mirabilis with other bacteria, yeast in otitis media was also prolonged and increases the severity of otitis externa in dogs and cats Edmund (2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: A wound is the disruption in the continuity of skin. Infected wound leads to collection of pus in a cavity formed by disintegration of tissues within the dermis or deeper skin tissues leading to cutaneous abscess. Cutaneuos abscesses wounds are common in goats and sheep but infection due to Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) is very rare. In this case report, a Shami goat which had a ruptured abscess at the neck and head region was initially suspected for caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (C. pseudotuberculosis) however, the isolation and identification of pus and blood swab samples in an aseptic manner revealed the presence of Proteus species. The Proteus species showed resistance to wide range of antibiotic used in the treatment and causes a non healing abscess wound in the Shami goat.
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