Fc receptor-like molecules.

Division of Developmental and Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294-3300, USA.
Annual Review of Immunology (Impact Factor: 36.56). 02/2007; 25:525-60. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.immunol.25.022106.141541
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Discovery of a large family of Fc receptor-like (FCRL) molecules, homologous to the well-known receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulin (FCR), has uncovered an impressive abundance of immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) genes in the human 1q21-23 chromosomal region and revealed significant diversity for these genes between humans and mice. The observation that FCRL representatives are members of an ancient multigene family that share a common ancestor with the classical FCR is underscored by their linked genomic locations, gene structure, shared extracellular domain composition, and utilization of common cytoplasmic tyrosine-based signaling elements. In contrast to the conventional FCR, however, FCRL molecules possess diverse extracellular frameworks, autonomous or dual signaling properties, and preferential B lineage expression. Most importantly, there is no strong evidence thus far to support a role for them as Ig-binding receptors. These characteristics, in addition to their identification in malignancies and autoimmune disorders, predict a fundamental role for these receptors as immunomodulatory agents in normal and subverted B lineage cells.

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    ABSTRACT: A group of genes encoding proteins structurally related to the leukocyte Fc receptors (FcRs) and termed the IFGP family was identified in human and mouse. Sequences of four human and two mouse cDNAs predict proteins differing by domain composition. One of the mouse cDNAs encodes a secreted protein, which, in addition to four immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, contains a scavenger receptor superfamily-related domain at the C-terminus. The other cDNAs code for the type I transmembrane proteins with the extracellular parts comprised of one to six Ig-like domains. Five homologous types of the Ig-like domains were defined and each protein was found to have a unique combination of the domain types. The cytoplasmic tails of the transmembrane proteins show different patterns of the tyrosine-based signal motifs. While the human IFGP members appear to be B-cell antigens, the mouse genes have a broader tissue distribution with predominant expression in brain. Sequence comparisons revealed that the IFGP family may be regarded as a phylogenetic link joining the leukocyte FcRs with the rat NK cell-specific gp42 antigen and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), two mammalian leukocyte receptors whose close relatives were not found previously. It is suggested that FcRs, the IFGP proteins and gp42 have arisen by a series of duplications from a common ancestor receptor comprised of five Ig-like domains. The organization of the human genes shows that the IFGP family evolved through differential gain and loss of exons due to recombination and/or mutation accumulation in the duplicated copies.
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