Determination of metal accumulation in deposited street dusts in Amman, Jordan.
ABSTRACT Street dust samples (120 in total) were collected under stable weather conditions during the hot, dry season (August and September) of 2004 from six different localities (industrial, heavy traffic, medium traffic, light traffic, low traffic and rural) in greater Amman, the capital of Jordan. The concentrations of Fe, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn and Ni in the dusts were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The high concentrations of Pb, Fe and Zn in the street dust samples were related to both anthropogenic (industrial sources combined with traffic sources) and natural sources. Surprisingly, the concentrations of Cd in the dusts were low. Correlation coefficient analysis and principle component analysis identified three main sources of these elements and the corresponding distributions. The elements Pb, Zn, Cd, Fe, Cu and Ni were mainly derived from industrial sources, with Pb and Zn additionally derived from traffic sources. The street dusts were found to have highly elevated levels of Zn, particularly along the main trunk roads, indicating that the Zn in the street dusts may be derived from traffic sources, especially vehicle tyres. The concentrations of metals in the different street dust samples were found to vary depending on the density of traffic.