Use of the diffusive gradients in thin films technique to evaluate (bio)available trace metal concentrations in river water.

Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Environmental Protection, Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Purkynova 118, 61200, Brno, Czech Republic.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (Impact Factor: 3.66). 04/2007; 387(6):2239-44. DOI: 10.1007/s00216-006-0996-y
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni and Zn were monitored in the Svitava River (the Czech Republic) during April and September 2005. Total concentrations and total dissolved concentrations were obtained through regular water sampling, and the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) were used to gain information on the kinetically labile metal concentrations. Each measured concentration was compared with the corresponding average (bio)available concentration calculated from the mass of metal accumulated by the moss species Fontinalis antipyretica. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cr and Zn measured using DGT corresponded well with those obtained after the deployment of Fontinalis antipyretica moss bags in the Svitava River, but the concentrations of Cu and Ni did not. The calculated (bio)available Cu concentration correlated well with the total dissolved concentration of Cu, whereas no correlation was found to exist between the concentrations of Ni.

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    ABSTRACT: In this work, a device based on diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) was evaluated for the determination of Hg(II) in river water. The DGT device was assembled with a cellulose phosphate ion exchange membrane (P81 Whatman) as a binding phase and agarose gel 1.5% (m/v) as a diffusive layer. Laboratory deployments showed that the binding of Hg(2+) ([HgDGT]/[Hgsolution]) by P81 membrane was more effective (97%) than the Chelex 100 resin (80%).The effect of ionic strength, pH and potential interfering ions on Hg binding with DGT׳s was investigated. The results showed no significant effect on the binding of Hg(II) at pH range from 3.5 to 8.5 and at an ionic strength range from 0.0005 to 0.1molL(-1). Uptakes of 50µgL(-1) Hg(II) by P81 membrane were not affected by Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ca and Mg at the concentration range of 200-1800µgL(-1). Finally, the DGT device using the P81 as the binding layer was applied for in situ measurements of Hg in river water. For in situ measurements, the labile Hg concentration (from <2 to 13ngL(-1)) was lower than 10% of the dissolved fraction (from 155 to 446ngL(-1)).
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