Beta-catenin expression in relation to genetic instability and prognosis in colorectal cancer.
ABSTRACT In the carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) genetic instability and dysfunction of the Wnt-signalling pathway play important roles. Most Wnt-signalling dysfunctions lead to the nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin is associated with prognosis and genetic instability. We used immunohistochemistry to study nuclear beta-catenin expression in 67 CRCs. The expression was evaluated in the entire tumour section as mean values and in tumour budding at the invasive margin. We compared the results with chromosomal and microsatellite instability (CIN vs. MSI), p53 accumulation, and clinicopathological variables including survival. The nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin was significantly associated with abnormal p53 expression and aneuploidy, typically for CIN, whereas no tumour with nuclear beta-catenin expression at the invasive margin displayed MSI. The beta-catenin expression pattern did not correlate significantly with CRC patient prognosis when including all stages. However, in the clinically most interesting prognostic group, Dukes' stage B patients, high nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin was associated with a poor prognosis (p=0.01). Our results suggest that nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin in CRC is related to CIN and may be of prognostic importance. However, larger studies are needed to verify these findings.
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ABSTRACT: Wnt/beta-catenin signalling has been suggested to be active in basal-like breast cancer. However, in highly aggressive metastatic triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) the role of beta-catenin and the underlying mechanism(s) for the aggressiveness of TNBC remain unknown. We illustrate that WNT10B induces transcriptionally active beta-catenin in human TNBC and predicts survival-outcome of patients with both TNBC and basal-like tumours. We provide evidence that transgenic murine Wnt10b-driven tumours are devoid of ER-alpha, PR and HER2 expression and can model human TNBC. Importantly, HMGA2 is specifically expressed during early stages of embryonic mammogenesis and absent when WNT10B expression is lost, suggesting a developmentally conserved mode of action. Mechanistically, ChIP analysis uncovered that WNT10B activates canonical beta-catenin signalling leading to up-regulation of HMGA2. Treatment of mouse and human triple-negative tumour cells with two Wnt/beta-catenin pathway modulators or siRNA to HMGA2 decreases HMGA2 levels and proliferation. We demonstrate that WNT10B has epistatic activity on HMGA2, which is necessary and sufficient for proliferation of TNBC cells. Furthermore, HMGA2 expression predicts relapse-free-survival and metastasis in TNBC patients.EMBO Molecular Medicine 02/2013; 5(1):1-16. DOI:10.1002/emmm.201201320 · 8.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a common salivary gland malignancy characterized by slow but progressive clinical course, proclivity for hematogenous spread and perineural invasion (PNI) that exhibits inherent resistance to complete surgical resection, systemic chemotherapy and conventional radiotherapy. The molecular alterations that underlie its PNI are poorly characterized. We report the combined use of laser capture microdissection (LCM) and high-throughput cDNA microarray to monitor in vivo gene expression profile of salivary ACC and to correlate the profile with PNI. Consecutive section staining with hematoxylin & eosin was applied to 15 cancerous tissues, among which 6 were judged as PNI. Pure cancer cells adjacent to the nerve tracts from 6 cancerous tissues judged as PNI were laser captured, and pure cancer cells from the same 6 tumors distant from the nerve tracts were also procured. Total RNA was extracted, amplified and subjected to cDNA microarray-based expression analysis. The patterns of gene expression were verified by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. As to the result of 6 arrays, a total of 53 genes were identified as being 2-fold or more differentially expressed in PNI cancer cell group as compared to non-PNI cancer cell control. Out of the 53 genes found consistently differentially expressed, 38 were up-regulated and 15 down-regulated. The combined use of LCM and cDNA microarray analysis provides a powerful new approach to monitor the in vivo molecular events of PNI in salivary ACC. These identified novel genes deserve further investigations to elucidate their clinicopathological significance.The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 07/2007; 212(3):319-34. DOI:10.1620/tjem.212.319 · 1.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The prion protein (PrPC) has a primary role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, which causes prion disorders partially due to Ca2+ dysregulation. In our previous work, we found that overexpressed PrPC in gastric cancer was involved in apoptosis, cell proliferation, and metastasis of gastric cancer. To better understand how PrPC acts in gastric cancer, a human microarray was performed to select differentially regulated genes that correlate with the biological function of PrPC. The microarray data were analyzed and revealed 3798 genes whose expression increased at least 2-fold in gastric cancer cells transfected with PrPC. These genes encode proteins involved in several aspects of cell biology, among which, we specially detected molecules related to calcium, especially the S100 calcium-binding proteins, and found that PrPC upregulates S100A1, S100A6, S100B, and S100P but downregulates CacyBP in gastric cancer cells. We also found that intracellular Ca2+ levels in cells transfected with PrPC increased, whereas these levels decreased in knockdowns of these cells. Taken together, PrPC might increase intracellular Ca2+, partially through calcium-binding proteins, or PrPC might upregulate the expression of S100 proteins, partially through stimulating the intracellular calcium level in gastric cancer. Though the underlying mechanisms need further exploration, this study provides a new insight into the role of PrPC in gastric cancer and enriches our knowledge of prion protein.Biochemistry and Cell Biology 07/2007; 85(3):375-83. DOI:10.1139/o07-052 · 2.35 Impact Factor