Intratympanic dexamethasone for sudden sensorineural hearing loss after failure of systemic therapy.

Vanderbilt University Medical Center/The Otology Group of Vanderbilt, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.
The Laryngoscope (Impact Factor: 1.98). 02/2007; 117(1):3-15. DOI: 10.1097/01.mlg.0000245058.11866.15
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Intratympanic steroids are increasingly used in the treatment of inner ear disorders, especially in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) who have failed systemic therapy. We reviewed our experience with intratympanic steroids in the treatment of patients with sudden SNHL to determine overall success, morbidity, and prognostic factors.
Intratympanic steroids have minimal morbidity and the potential to have a positive effect on hearing recovery in patients with sudden SNHL who have failed systemic therapy.
The authors conducted a retrospective review.
Patients presenting with sudden SNHL defined as a rapid decline in hearing over 3 days or less affecting 3 or more frequencies by 30 dB or greater who underwent intratympanic steroids therapy (24 mg/mL dexamethasone) were reviewed. Excluded were patients with Meniere disease, retrocochlear disease, autoimmune HL, trauma, fluctuating HL, radiation-induced HL, noise-induced HL, or any other identifiable etiology for sudden HL. Patients who showed signs of fluctuation of hearing after injection were excluded. Pretreatment and posttreatment audiometric evaluations including pure-tone average (PTA) and speech reception threshold (SRT) were analyzed. Patient variables as they related to recovery were studied and included patient age, time to onset of therapy, status of the contralateral ear, presence of diabetes, severity of HL, and presence of associated symptoms (tinnitus, vertigo). A 20-dB gain in PTA or a 20% improvement in SDS was considered significant.
: Forty patients fit the criteria for inclusion in the study. The mean age of the patients was 54.8 years with a range from 17 to 84 years of age. Overall, 40% (n = 16) showed any improvement in PTA or SDS. Fourteen (35%) men and 26 (65%) women were included. Using the criteria of 20-dB improvement in PTA or 20% improvement in SDS for success, 27.5% (n = 11) showed improvement. The mean number of days from onset of symptoms to intratympanic therapy was 40 days with a range of 7 days to 310 days. A statistically significant difference was noted in those patients who received earlier injection (P = .0008, rank sum test). No patient receiving intratympanic dexamethasone after 36 days recovered hearing using 20-dB PTA decrease or a 20% increase in discrimination as criteria for recovery. Twelve percent (n = 5) of patients in the study had diabetes with 20% recovering after intratympanic dexamethasone (not significantly different from nondiabetics at 28.6%, Fisher exact test, P = 1.0). Comparison to other studies that used differing steroid type, concentration, dosing schedule, inclusion criteria, and criteria for success revealed, in many instances, a similar overall recovery rate.
Difficulty in proving efficacy of a single modality is present in all studies on SNHL secondary to multiple treatment protocols, variable rates of recovery, and a high rate of spontaneous recovery. Forty percent of patients showed some improvement in SDS or PTA after treatment failure. When criteria of 20-dB PTA or 20% is considered to define improvement, the recovery rate was 27.5%. Modest improvement is seen with the current protocol of a single intratympanic steroid injection of 24 mg/mL dexamethasone in patients who failed systemic therapy. Dramatic hearing recovery in treatment failures was rarely encountered. No patient showed significant benefit from intratympanic steroids after 36 days when using this protocol for idiopathic sudden SNHL. If patients injected after 6 weeks are excluded from the study, the improvement rate increases from 26.9% to 39.3%. Earlier intratympanic injection had a significant impact on hearing recovery, although with any therapeutic intervention for sudden SNHL, early success may be attributed to natural history. If we further exclude seven patients treated with intratympanic steroids within 2 weeks of the onset of symptoms (i.e., study only those patients treated with intratympanic dexamethasone between 2 and 6 weeks after onset of symptoms), still, 26% improved by 20 dB or 20% SDS. The recovery rates after initial systemic failure are higher than would be expected in this treatment failure group given our control group (9.1%) and literature review. These findings indicate a positive effect from steroid perfusion in this patient population.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Magnetic fields have the potential to noninvasively direct and focus therapy to disease targets. External magnets can apply forces on drug-coated magnetic nanoparticles, or on living cells that contain particles, and can be used to manipulate them in vivo. Significant progress has been made in developing and testing safe and therapeutic magnetic constructs that can be manipulated by magnetic fields. However, we do not yet have the magnet systems that can then direct those constructs to the right places, in vivo, over human patient distances. We do not yet know where to put the external magnets, how to shape them, or when to turn them on and off to direct particles or magnetized cells-in blood, through tissue, and across barriers-to disease locations. In this article, we consider ear and eye disease targets. Ear and eye targets are too deep and complex to be targeted by a single external magnet, but they are shallow enough that a combination of magnets may be able to direct therapy to them. We focus on how magnetic fields should be shaped (in space and time) to direct magnetic constructs to ear and eye targets.
    Annual review of biomedical engineering. 07/2014; 16:455-81.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of low-dose intratympanic dexamethasone therapy in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss whose hearing in the affected ear had failed to improve following a course of oral steroid therapy. Methods: A prospective pilot study was undertaken of eight patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss whose hearing had failed to improve after a course of prednisolone. These patients subsequently received 8 mg intratympanic dexamethasone therapy, delivered via a ventilation tube on a weekly basis for 1 month. Clinical outcome was assessed weekly with pure tone audiography. Results: At the end of the 1-month treatment period, no significant hearing improvement was observed on pure tone audiography in any of the patients (i.e. improvements were all less than 10 dB). Conclusion: The response to 8 mg of intratympanic dexamethasone used as a salvage therapy for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss was inadequate. A higher dosage of intratympanic dexamethasone might be required to achieve better outcomes.
    The Journal of Laryngology & Otology 01/2014; · 0.68 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus can affect inner ear by disrupting either the hearing or balance system. Affection of hearing can be anatomically categorized into conductive and sensorineural hearing loss, while affection of the equilibrium system manifests either as an isolated manifestation like vertigo or as a part of a spectrum like Meniere's disease. Most cases show asymptomatic affection requiring an objective audiovestibular assessment. More focus should be given to routine evaluation especially with disease flares and for proper treatment. In pediatric patients, more concern should be given owing to the added effect of ototoxicity with several drugs and the educational impact of such comorbidity.
    Current Allergy and Asthma Reports 07/2014; 14(7):446. · 2.75 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 28, 2014