Stimulant-Induced Enhanced Sexual Desire as a Potential Contributing Factor in HIV Transmission
ABSTRACT Stimulant abuse is associated with an increased risk of contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although sharing of contaminated needles is one of the routes by which HIV is spread, noninjection abusers are also at high risk. The authors investigated the effect of the stimulant drug methylphenidate (given intravenously) on sexual desire as a possible contributing factor to risky sexual behavior associated with the contraction of HIV.
The effects of intravenous methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg) on self-reports of sexual desire (rated from 0-10) were evaluated in 39 comparison subjects and 39 cocaine abusers.
Intravenous methylphenidate significantly increased self-reports of sexual desire in comparison subjects (1.4 versus 3.7) and cocaine abusers (2.8 versus 4.8).
Stimulant-induced enhancement of sexual desire could be one mechanism by which stimulant drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine increase the risk for HIV transmission even when they are not injected.
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of methamphetamine (METH) use is estimated at ~35 million people worldwide, with over 10 million users in the United States. METH use elicits a myriad of social consequences and the behavioral impact of the drug is well understood. However, new information has recently emerged detailing the devastating effects of METH on host immunity, increasing the acquisition of diverse pathogens and exacerbating the severity of disease. These outcomes manifest as modifications in protective physical and chemical defenses, pro-inflammatory responses, and the induction of oxidative stress pathways. Through these processes, significant neurotoxicities arise, and, as such, chronic abusers with these conditions are at a higher risk for heightened consequences. METH use also influences the adaptive immune response, permitting the unrestrained development of opportunistic diseases. In this review, we discuss recent literature addressing the impact of METH on infection and immunity, and identify areas ripe for future investigation.Frontiers in Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:445. DOI:10.3389/fnins.2014.00445
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ABSTRACT: South Africa is facing an established epidemic of methamphetamine, known locally as "tik." Globally, methamphetamine has been linked to high rates of sexual risk behaviors, including sex trading. The goal of this study was to qualitatively examine the experiences of sex trading among methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 active methamphetamine users (17 men and 13 women) recruited from the community. Interviews were conducted in local languages using a semi-structured guide that included questions on sex trading experiences and perceptions of sex trading among methamphetamine users. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using analytic memos and coding with constant comparison techniques. The data revealed that in a setting of high levels of addiction and poverty, sex was an important commodity for acquiring methamphetamine. Women were more likely to use sex to acquire methamphetamine, but men reported opportunistic cases of trading sex for methamphetamine. Four models of sex trading emerged: negotiated exchange, implicit exchange, relationships based on resources, and facilitating sex exchange for others. The expectation of sex trading created a context in which sexual violence against female methamphetamine users was common. Multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use in acts of sex trading put methamphetamine users at high risk of HIV. Interventions in this setting should address addiction, which is the primary driver of sex trading among methamphetamine users. Harm reduction interventions may include education about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, availability of condoms and HIV testing, and sexual violence prevention.Archives of Sexual Behavior 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10508-014-0418-8 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AimTo investigate the characteristics of the different club drugs and associated high-risk sexual behaviours in China.DesignMulticentre cross-sectional study.SettingDrug Detoxification and Rehabilitation Centres in six provinces, China.ParticipantsA total of 1434 eligible club drug users were included.MeasurementsParticipants were investigated by trained interviewers using a self-designed structured questionnaire to collect information on club drug use and associated behaviours.FindingsMethamphetamine was the most commonly abused drug in participants (73.92%), who used it in their or their friends' homes by non-injection for the purpose of feeling euphoria. Among participants with sexual behaviours after club drug use, 75.21% reported having engaged in sex with multiple partners after club drug use during the past year and 79.84% had unprotected sex after using club drug during the past year. A two-level logistic model showed that male gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 7.14; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.17–12.5], unmarried (AOR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.04–2.79), long duration of club drug use during their life-time (AOR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.28–2.42) and severe acute intoxication after using club drugs during the past year (AOR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.07–4.15) were independent risk factors of multiple sex partners during the past year. Another two-level model showed that the club drug users who were female (AOR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.03–3.11) and had polydrug use during their lifetime (AOR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.01–2.34) had more risk for unprotected sex during the past year than without these characteristics.Conclusion High-risk sexual behaviours are common among club drug users in China. The prevention and intervention of club drug use could decrease the risk of sexual behaviours which further prevent HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted infections in China.Addiction 01/2015; 110(S1). DOI:10.1111/add.12770 · 4.60 Impact Factor