In renal proximal tubules, VDR is transiently decreased by parathyroid hormone (PTH) during times of hypocalcemia and returns to normal levels with the rise in serum calcium (Ca). In this study we tested the hypothesis that elevated extracellular Ca induces VDR in a human renal proximal cell line (HK-2G) stably expressing PTH receptor type I. Exposure of HK-2G cells to increasing Ca concentration, up to 3mM, induced the expression of VDR. The increase in VDR occurred within 1h and was sustained over 24h. The increase in VDR was also dose-dependently increased using 20-100 nM gadolinium, suggesting the induction of VDR is regulated via the extracellular Ca sensing receptor (CaSR) with is naturally expressed in HK-2G cells. In conclusion, an extracellular Ca concentration in the physiological range is capable of direct increase of renal proximal VDR expression, and the induction mechanism represents a strategy the body may use to counterbalance effects of PTH on renal Vitamin D metabolism.
"Arguably, the effect of vitamin D on phosphate metabolism is the least understood of the three hormonal systems discussed here. Circulating active vitamin D metabolites are largely a result of renal production of the hormone, which is regulated by a number of factors including PTH, FGF23, phosphate, calcium, acid–base balance, and the hormone itself (Maiti & Beckman, 2007; Bikle et al. 2013). 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 activates both osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation suggesting the potential for decreasing or increasing serum phosphate. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The regulation of serum phosphate, an acknowledged risk factor for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular mortality, is poorly understood. The discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) as a key regulator of renal phosphate handling and activation of vitamin D has revolutionized our comprehension of phosphate homeostasis. Through as yet undetermined mechanisms, circulating and dietary phosphate appear to have a direct effect on FGF23 release by bone cells that, in turn, causes renal phosphate excretion and decreases intestinal phosphate absorption through a decrease in vitamin D production. Thus, the two major phosphaturic hormones, PTH and FGF23, have opposing effects on vitamin D production, placing vitamin D at the nexus of phosphate homeostasis. While our understanding of phosphate homeostasis has advanced, the factors determining regulation of serum phosphate level remain enigmatic. Diet, time of day, season, gender, age, and genetics have all been identified as significant contributors to serum phosphate level. The effects of these factors on serum phosphate has major implications for what is understood as “normal” and for studies of phosphate homeostasis and metabolism. Moreover, other hormonal mediators such as dopamine, insulin-like growth factor, and angiotensin II also affect renal handling of phosphate. How the major hormone effects on phosphate handling are regulated and how the effect of these other factors are integrated to yield the measurable serum phosphate are only now beginning to be studied.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
The Journal of Physiology 06/2014; 592(18). DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2014.273979 · 5.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development over the past 20 years of a variety of cultured renal tubule cell lines derived from different parts of the renal tubule has provided invaluable powerful cell systems for in vitro analyses of the various tubule segment-specific biochemical functions and ion transport processes. Immortalized cell lines have been established using different hybrid gene constructs, most of them carrying the immortalizing simian virus 40 large T antigen (Tag) gene. The development of transgenic mice carrying unregulated Tag, and of others in which the expression of Tag remains controlled, has made it possible to establish permanent cell lines derived from microdissected or immunoselected renal proximal, distal, and collecting duct tubules. This review summarizes the different strategies of cellular immortalization used and the most frequently used human, rabbit, rat, and mouse tubule cell lines. This review provides an overview of the use of immortalized mouse tubule cell lines for in vitro analyses of various tubule cell-specific functions and the regulation of ion transporters and membranous channels. The advantages of using primary cultures of isolated tubules dissected from physiopathological models of transgenic mice are also discussed.
Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 05/2008; 457(1):1-15. DOI:10.1007/s00424-008-0507-4 · 4.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this article, we review the evidence that dietary protein has a positive influence on bone health, reduces hip fracture risk, and promotes postfracture recovery, and we consider the molecular, cellular, and endocrine bases of the interactions that link protein and calcium metabolism, including effects via IGF-1 and PTH. In addition, we consider the roles of amino acid-sensing mechanisms in coupling dietary protein intake to metabolic change as well as the central role of calcium-sensing receptors (CaRs) in the control of calcium metabolism. Finally, we consider how recently identified broad-spectrum amino acid-sensing receptors from class 3 of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily including, remarkably, the CaR itself may contribute to the impact of dietary protein on bone.
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