Macrophylogenetic analyses of the gain and loss of self-incompatibility in the Asteraceae.
ABSTRACT The self-incompatibility (SI) status of 571 taxa from the Asteraceae was identified and the taxa were scored as having SI, partial SI or self-compatibility (SC) as their breeding system. A molecular phylogeny of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was constructed for 211 of these taxa. Macrophylogenetic methods were used to test hypotheses concerning the ancestral state of SI in the Asteraceae, the gain and loss of SI, the irreversibility of the loss of SI and the potential for partial SI or SC to be terminal states. The ancestral breeding system in the family could not be resolved. Both maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses indicated that transitions among all breeding system states provide the best fit to the data and that neither partial SI nor SC is a terminal state. Furthermore, the data indicated that the loss of SI is not irreversible, although breeding system evolution has been more dynamic in some clades than in others. These results are discussed within the context of evidence for the gain and loss of SI, the evolutionary role of partial SI and methodological assumptions of tests of breeding system evolution.
- SourceAvailable from: Vicki A. Funk
Dataset: 2008 pr Panero Funk Base tree
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ABSTRACT: Selfing is assumed to reduce selection efficacy, especially purifying selection. This can be tested using molecular data, for example by comparing the Dn/Ds ratio between selfing and outcrossing lineages. So far, little evidence of relaxed selection against weakly deleterious mutations (as inferred by a higher Dn/Ds ratio) in selfers as compared to outcrossers has been found, contrary to the pattern often observed between asexual and sexual lineages. However, few groups have been studied to date. To further test this hypothesis, we compiled and analysed chloroplastic sequence data sets in several plant groups. We found a general trend towards relaxed selection in selfers in our data sets but with weak statistical support. Simulations suggested that the results were compatible with weak-to-moderate Dn/Ds ratio differences in selfing lineages. Simple theoretical predictions also showed that the ability to detect relaxed selection in selfers could strongly depend on the distribution of the effects of deleterious mutations on fitness. Our results are compatible with a recent origin of selfing lineages whereby deleterious mutations potentially have a strong impact on population extinction or with a more ancient origin but without a marked effect of deleterious mutations on the extinction dynamics.Journal of Evolutionary Biology 03/2014; · 3.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Evolutionary transitions between mating systems have occurred repetitively and independently in flowering plants. One of the most spectacular advances of the recent empirical literature in the field was the discovery of the underlying genetic machinery, which provides the opportunity to retrospectively document the scenario of the outcrossing to selfing transitions in a phylogenetic perspective. In this review, we explore the literature describing patterns of polymorphism and molecular evolution of the locus controlling self-incompatibility (S-locus) in selfing species of the Brassicaceae family in order to document the transition from outcrossing to selfing, a retrospective approach that we describe as the ‘mating system genes approach'. The data point to strikingly contrasted scenarios of transition from outcrossing to selfing. We also perform original analyses of the fully sequenced genomes of four species showing self-compatibility, to compare the orthologous S-locus region with that of functional S-locus haplotypes. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that all species we investigated evolved independently towards loss of self-incompatibility, and in most cases almost intact sequences of either of the two S-locus genes suggest that these transitions occurred relatively recently. The S-locus region in Aethionema arabicum, representing the most basal lineage of Brassicaceae, showed unusual patterns so that our analysis could not determine whether self-incompatibility was lost secondarily, or evolved in the core Brassicaceae after the split with this basal lineage. Although the approach we detail can only be used when mating system genes have been identified in a clade, we suggest that its integration with phylogenetic and population genetic approaches should help determine the main routes of this predominant mating system shift in plants.Journal of Evolutionary Biology 04/2014; · 3.48 Impact Factor