The pineal gland is a photoneuroendocrine transducer that influences circadian and circannual dynamics of many physiological functions via the daily rhythm in melatonin production and release. Melatonin synthesis is stimulated at night by a photoneural system through which pineal adenylate cyclase is adrenergically activated, resulting in an elevation of cAMP. cAMP enhances melatonin synthesis through actions on several elements of the biosynthetic pathway. cAMP degradation also appears to increase at night due to an increase in phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity, which peaks in the middle of the night. Here, it was found that this nocturnal increase in PDE activity results from an increase in the abundance of PDE4B2 mRNA (approximately 5-fold; doubling time, approximately 2 h). The resulting level is notably higher (>6-fold) than in all other tissues examined, none of which exhibit a robust daily rhythm. The increase in PDE4B2 mRNA is followed by increases in PDE4B2 protein and PDE4 enzyme activity. Results from in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that these changes are due to activation of adrenergic receptors and a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A mechanism. Inhibition of PDE4 activity during the late phase of adrenergic stimulation enhances cAMP and melatonin levels. The evidence that PDE4B2 plays a negative feedback role in adrenergic/cAMP signaling in the pineal gland provides the first proof that cAMP control of PDE4B2 is a physiologically relevant control mechanism in cAMP signaling.
"PDE inhibitors are being extensively investigated for their efficacy in the treatment of a range of neurodegenerative disorders, including PD , affording protection in the MPTP model  and on BBBp . PDE4 inhibitors will also increase night-time melatonin levels . PDE2A inhibitors are under extensive research in the treatment of inflammatory processes , which as indicated above would have significance in PD and therefore in peripherally derived TRYCATs, as well as on AHr regulation. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased depression, somatization, gut inflammation and wider peripheral inflammation are all associated with the early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). Classically such concurrent conditions have been viewed as "comorbidities", driven by high levels of stress in a still poorly understood and treated disorder. Here we review the data on how oxidative and nitrosative stress in association with immuno-inflammatory responses, drives alteration in tryptophan catabolites, including kynurenine, kynurenic acid and quinolinic acid that drive not only the "comorbidities" of PD but also important processes in the etiology and course of PD per se. The induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, leading to the driving of tryptophan into neuroregulatory tryptophan catabolite products and away from serotonin and melatonin production, has significant implications for understanding the role of nicotine, melatonin, and caffeine in regulating PD susceptibility. Tryptophan catabolite pathway activation will also regulate blood-brain barrier permeability, glia and mast cell reactivity as well as wider innate and adaptive immune cell responses, all relevant to the course of PD. As such, the "comorbidities" of PD such as depression, somatization and peripheral inflammatory disorders can all be conceptualized as being an intricate part of the biological underpinnings of both the etiology and course of PD. As a consequence, the data reviewed here has treatment implications; relevant to both the course of PD and in the management of L-DOPA induced dyskinesias.
"PDE4B mRNA demonstrates a specific circadian rhythm, with peak levels at night in the rat pineal four hours into the dark phase that progressively decline into the light phase. PDE4B2 levels are five-fold greater at night versus the day.27 As we did not measure PDE gene expression at different circadian timepoints, we cannot specifically comment on chronic antidepressant induced alterations in the circadian rhythms of PDEs in the pineal gland. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circadian rhythm disturbances can occur as part of the clinical symptoms of major depressive disorder and have been found to resolve with antidepressant therapy. The pineal gland is relevant to circadian rhythms as it secretes the hormone melatonin following activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling cascade and of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), the rate-limiting enzyme for its synthesis. Cyclic AMP is synthesized by adenylate cyclases (AC) and degraded by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Little is known about the contribution of the PDE system to antidepressant-induced alterations in pineal cAMP signaling and melatonin synthesis. In the present study we used enzyme immunoassay to measure plasma melatonin levels and pineal cAMP levels and as well as quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to measure pineal expression of PDE, AC, and AA-NAT genes in rats chronically treated with the prototypic antidepressant fluoxetine. We found elevated melatonin synthesis with increased pineal AA-NAT gene expression and daytime plasma melatonin levels and downregulated cAMP signaling with increased PDE and unchanged AC pineal gene expression, and decreased content of pineal cAMP. We conclude that chronic fluoxetine treatment increases daytime plasma melatonin and pineal AA-NAT gene expression despite downregulated pineal cAMP signaling in the rodent.
Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications 09/2009; 1:1-6. DOI:10.2147/CPAA.S7157
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) is the first enzyme in the conversion of serotonin to melatonin. Changes in AANAT activity determine the daily rhythm in melatonin secretion. Two AANAT genes have been identified in the pike, pAANAT-1 and pAANAT-2, expressed in the retina and in the pineal, respectively. The genes preferentially expressed in these tissues encode proteins with distinctly different kinetic characteristics. Like the pike, trout retina primarily expresses the AANAT-1 gene and trout pineal primarily expresses the AANAT-2 gene. Here we show that the kinetic characteristics of AANAT in these tissues differ as in pike. These differences include optimal temperature for activity (pineal: 12°C; retina: 25°C) and relative affinity for indoleethylamines compared to phenylethylamines. In addition, retinal AANAT exhibited substrate inhibition, which was not seen with pineal AANAT. The kinetic differences between AANAT-1 and AANAT-2 appear to be defining characteristics of these gene subfamilies, and are not species specific.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.