Medium-term results of oral tacrolimus treatment in refractory inflammatory bowel disease.
ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of oral tacrolimus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refractory to conventional therapy, including azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, and infliximab.
Retrospective review of all patients with IBD treated with oral tacrolimus was undertaken. Tacrolimus was administered t an initial dose of 0.05 mg/kg twice daily, aiming for serum trough levels of 5-10 ng/mL. We evaluated clinical response, a retrospective estimated Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) for Crohn's disease (CD), modified Truelove-Witts index for ulcerative colitis (UC), and modified pouch disease activity index (mPDAI) for pouchitis. Patients had been monitored clinically for benefit and side effects and by whole blood tacrolimus level approximately every 4 weeks for the duration of treatment. Clinical remission was defined as an estimated CDAI <150 (CD), an inactive disease score on the Truelove-Witts index (UC), and mPDAI <5 (pouchitis).
Twelve patients with CD, six with UC, and one with pouchitis, all resistant to previous therapies, were treated for a median of 5 months. After 4 weeks 10 CD (83%), four UC (67%) patients, and one pouchitis patient had a clinical response. There was a median reduction of the estimated CDAI of 108 points (range 35-203; P = 0.002) and stool frequency of three per day at week 4. Remission was achieved in 42% (5/12) of CD and 50% (3/6) of UC patients at the end of follow-up. Side effects included temporary elevated creatinine (n = 1), tremor (n = 3), arthralgia (n = 1), insomnia (n = 1), and malaise (n = 1). Four patients discontinued treatment due to side effects. CONCLUSION-: Oral tacrolimus is well tolerated and effective in patients with refractory IBD in the short- to medium-term. Further controlled, long-term evaluation is warranted.
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ABSTRACT: While immunosuppressive agents are used widely in the management of Crohn's disease, their efficacy has not been well established in randomised controlled trials. This study was designed to examine whether azathioprine increases remission rate when used in conjunction with a diminishing dose regimen of prednisolone over a period of 12 weeks. It further examined whether azathioprine offers any therapeutic advantage over placebo in the maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease over a period of 15 months. Sixty three patients with active Crohn's disease were treated with a 12 weeks diminishing dose of prednisolone and at the same time entered into a randomised, double blind 15 month trial of either azathioprine (2.5 mg/kg) or placebo. Remission rates between the two groups were compared at 12 weeks and at 15 months. There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients who had achieved and maintained remission by week 12 but at 15 months there was a highly significant difference in the proportion of patients in remission (42% receiving azathioprine v 7% receiving placebo), p = 0.001. Using life tables this beneficial effect was reflected as the difference in the median number of days on the trial (p = 0.02). There were significantly greater decreases over the trial period in the median erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C reactive protein, and leucocyte count in the azathioprine group. There were no cases of severe bone marrow suppression or clinical pancreatitis. In conclusion, azathioprine offers a therapeutic advantage over placebo in the maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease.Gut 12/1995; 37(5):674-8. · 10.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against tumor necrosis factor alpha, is an established treatment for Crohn's disease but not ulcerative colitis. Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies--the Active Ulcerative Colitis Trials 1 and 2 (ACT 1 and ACT 2, respectively)--evaluated the efficacy of infliximab for induction and maintenance therapy in adults with ulcerative colitis. In each study, 364 patients with moderate-to-severe active ulcerative colitis despite treatment with concurrent medications received placebo or infliximab (5 mg or 10 mg per kilogram of body weight) intravenously at weeks 0, 2, and 6 and then every eight weeks through week 46 (in ACT 1) or week 22 (in ACT 2). Patients were followed for 54 weeks in ACT 1 and 30 weeks in ACT 2. In ACT 1, 69 percent of patients who received 5 mg of infliximab and 61 percent of those who received 10 mg had a clinical response at week 8, as compared with 37 percent of those who received placebo (P<0.001 for both comparisons with placebo). A response was defined as a decrease in the Mayo score of at least 3 points and at least 30 percent, with an accompanying decrease in the subscore for rectal bleeding of at least 1 point or an absolute rectal-bleeding subscore of 0 or 1. In ACT 2, 64 percent of patients who received 5 mg of infliximab and 69 percent of those who received 10 mg had a clinical response at week 8, as compared with 29 percent of those who received placebo (P<0.001 for both comparisons with placebo). In both studies, patients who received infliximab were more likely to have a clinical response at week 30 (P< or =0.002 for all comparisons). In ACT 1, more patients who received 5 mg or 10 mg of infliximab had a clinical response at week 54 (45 percent and 44 percent, respectively) than did those who received placebo (20 percent, P<0.001 for both comparisons). Patients with moderate-to-severe active ulcerative colitis treated with infliximab at weeks 0, 2, and 6 and every eight weeks thereafter were more likely to have a clinical response at weeks 8, 30, and 54 than were those receiving placebo. (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00036439 and NCT00096655.)New England Journal of Medicine 01/2006; 353(23):2462-76. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Immunosuppressive therapy with intravenous ciclosporin is an alternative treatment option to total colectomy for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), while the benefits of oral administration of tacrolimus are not well defined and are based on reports of several uncontrolled studies. Patients with refractory active UC were randomly assigned to a high trough concentration (10-15 ng/ml) group (HT group) (n = 21), low trough concentration (5-10 ng/ml) group (LT group) (n = 22), or placebo group (n = 20). Patients received an initial oral dose of 0.025 [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] mg/kg tacrolimus or placebo twice daily. Efficacy was evaluated in 60 patients based on a disease activity index (DAI) score. Fifty eight patients had additional treatment with tacrolimus and were evaluated for efficacy in a 10 week open label extension. An improvement in DAI score (>or=4 points, all categories improved) was observed for 68.4% of cases in the HT group compared with 10.0% in the placebo group (p<0.001). In the HT group, 20.0% of patients had clinical remission and 78.9% had mucosal healing. In the open label extension, 55.2% of all patients had an improved DAI score at week 10. Mean dose of prednisolone was reduced from 19.7 mg/day at study entry to 7.8 mg/day at week 10. The incidence of side effects in the HT group was significantly higher than that of the placebo group (p = 0.043). The most common event was mild finger tremor. Our findings demonstrate dose dependent efficacy and safety of oral tacrolimus for remission-induction therapy of refractory UC. The optimal target range appears to be 10-15 ng/ml in terms of efficacy with two week therapy.Gut 09/2006; 55(9):1255-62. · 10.73 Impact Factor