Supra dietary levels of vitamins C and E enhance antibody production and immune memory in juvenile milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal) to formalin-killed Vibrio vulnificus.
ABSTRACT Juveniles of milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal), were fed two independent supra dietary levels of vitamins C (500 and 1500 mg kg(-1) feed, T1 and T2) and E (50 and 150 mg kg(-1), T3 and T4). Milkfish fed diets with supra (in addition to the vitamins present in the control diet) and normal levels (T5 containing 90 and 1.2mg of vitamins C and E, respectively, kg(-1) of feed) of vitamins were immunized (ip) with formalin-killed Vibrio vulnificus (FKVV). Priming and booster antibody responses to the injected bacterin were significantly (P<0.05) better in the milkfish juveniles fed supra dietary levels. Survival response of the experimental fish fed supra dietary levels of vitamins (T1, T2 and T3) was significantly (P<0.01) better than that of the control set. Protective response against virulent bacterial challenge of the vaccinated fish fed vitamin-supplemented diets (T2 and T3) was better than the control (T5) and T1 and T4. Memory factor reflecting immunological memory was superior in the fish fed vitamin-supplemented diets. Diets supplemented with either 1500 mg of Vitamin C or 50mg of Vitamin E kg(-1) produced the best antibody responses, final survival and protective response upon challenge. No conclusive inferences could be drawn on the growth responses from the experiment.
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to compare the efficacy of dietary α-tocopherol with that of dl-α-tocopheryl acetate, both either alone or in combination with vitamin C (ascorbic acid), on the growth performance, survival, and stress resistance of angelfish, Pterophylum scalare, juveniles. Juveniles were fed ad libitum for four weeks with Artemia enriched with no vitamins (control), vitamin C (Tc), α-tocopherol (Tα), dl-α-tocopheryl acetate (T dl ), α-tocopherol and vitamin C (Tα+C), and dl-α-tocopheryl acetate and vitamin C (T dl+C). After four weeks, an osmotic stress test was performed using seawater (25g/L) to evaluate juvenile’s resistance to stress. Whole-body glucose and cortisol were used as stress indicators. At the end of the feeding trial, growth performance and survival of the juveniles fed vitamin-enriched Artemia were significantly (P<0.05) higher than for the control fish. Best performance was recorded for the Tα+C group. Survival, however, was not significantly (P>0.05) different between the vitamin-fed groups. Osmotic stress significantly elevated the stress indicators, whole-body cortisol and glucose levels (P<0.05), highest and lowest values being observed in control and Tα+C groups, respectively. Survival after osmotic stress of juveniles fed the Tα+c diet was significantly higher (by 46.2%, P<0.001) than for controls. Results suggested that α-tocopherol has greater efficacy than dl-α-tocopheryl acetate and enriching Artemia with α-tocopherol and vitamin C together improves growth performance, survival, and stress resistance of angelfish juveniles.Aquaculture International 17(3):207-216. · 1.04 Impact Factor
- Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research 11/2011; 39(3):534-543. · 0.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The study was conducted to assess the effects of salinity on growth and biochemical composition of freshwater catfish, Clarias batrachus. A static nonrenewable acute toxicity bioassay test was conducted and LC 50 of salinity for 96-h exposure to the fingerling (14.5 cm) was 12.52 %. Based on these results, two sublethal salinity levels, viz. 4 and 8 % were selected to study the long-term effects of salinity on C. batrachus for a period of 90 days. From the study, it was found that growth and survival rate were less in saline water (4 and 8 %). Maximum growth and survival were recorded in freshwater (0 % salinity) and subsequently at 4 and 8 %. To assess the biochemical alteration, few important biomarkers were estimated. At the end of 90 days rearing period, glucose level in the brain and blood of C. batrachus was found to decrease with salinity. The level of liver and muscle glycogen in the fish reared at 4 % was lower than that of control. Ascorbic acid in all organs under study was found to decrease with increasing salinity, which was attributed to stress mitigation effect of vitamin C. Acetylcholine esterase (AchE) activity recorded a gradual decrease with increasing salinity. Metabolic enzymes, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and adenosine triphosphosphtase (ATPase) activity also reduced both in liver and muscle tissues with increasing salinity. From the present investigation, it can be concluded that exposure to higher salinity significantly (P \ 0.01) affects the growth and physiological response of Clarias batrachus.Aquaculture International 01/2013; · 1.04 Impact Factor