Supra dietary levels of vitamins C and E enhance antibody production and immune memory in juvenile milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal) to formalin-killed Vibrio vulnificus.
ABSTRACT Juveniles of milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal), were fed two independent supra dietary levels of vitamins C (500 and 1500 mg kg(-1) feed, T1 and T2) and E (50 and 150 mg kg(-1), T3 and T4). Milkfish fed diets with supra (in addition to the vitamins present in the control diet) and normal levels (T5 containing 90 and 1.2mg of vitamins C and E, respectively, kg(-1) of feed) of vitamins were immunized (ip) with formalin-killed Vibrio vulnificus (FKVV). Priming and booster antibody responses to the injected bacterin were significantly (P<0.05) better in the milkfish juveniles fed supra dietary levels. Survival response of the experimental fish fed supra dietary levels of vitamins (T1, T2 and T3) was significantly (P<0.01) better than that of the control set. Protective response against virulent bacterial challenge of the vaccinated fish fed vitamin-supplemented diets (T2 and T3) was better than the control (T5) and T1 and T4. Memory factor reflecting immunological memory was superior in the fish fed vitamin-supplemented diets. Diets supplemented with either 1500 mg of Vitamin C or 50mg of Vitamin E kg(-1) produced the best antibody responses, final survival and protective response upon challenge. No conclusive inferences could be drawn on the growth responses from the experiment.
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ABSTRACT: The herbs/herbal drugs can act against several diseases and are also growth promoters, stress resistance boosters and preventatives of infections. Research has been initiated to evaluate the feasibility of herbal drugs in fish diseases. Use of herbs as drugs in disease management is gaining success, because herbal drugs are cost effective, eco-friendly and have minimal side effects. Many studies have proved that herbal additives enhanced the growth of fishes and protected them from diseases. The inclusion of herbal feed supplements often provides cooperative action to various physiological functions. Vitamins C and E as herbal drugs or feed have beneficial role in fish nutrition, reproduction, growth and related indices. In deed, the herbs/herbal drugs overcome all these problems and keep the fish healthy by acting as growth promoters and treating the diseases as well. Hence, this present article elucidates the importance and benefits of herbal drugs as aqua feed supplements, which act as growth promoters as well as cure various diseases of fishes and other aquatic animals. KEYWORDS: Fish, growth promoter, herbs/herbal drugs, herbal feed supplements. INTRODUCTION The herbs/herbal drugs are used not only against diseases but also as growth promoters, stress resistance boosters and preventatives of infections. Herbs can also act as immunostimulants, conferring the non-specific defense mechanisms of fish and elevating the specific immune response 1 . Recently, research has been initiated to evaluate the feasibility of herbal drugs in fish diseases 2 . Additionally, the herbal drugs provide a cheaper source for treatment and greater accuracy than chemotherapeutic agents without causing toxicity 1-2 . Nutritional requirements of an animal are a fundamental aspect that depends on species, habitat and live cycle stage 3 . The use of antibiotics and other chemotherapeutics for controlling diseases has been criticized for their negative impacts. Use of herbs as drugs in disease management is gaining success, because herbal drugs are cost effective, eco-friendly and have minimal side effects. Traditional herbal medicines seem to have the potential immunostimulation. Thus, the use of herbs is an alternative to antibiotics in fish health management. Many studies have proved that herbal additives enhanced the growth of fishes and protected them from diseases 4 . The herbs are not only safe for consumers but also widely available throughout Asia and they also have a significant role in aquaculture
Journal of Applied Aquaculture 08/2014; 26(3):216-224. DOI:10.1080/10454438.2014.934165
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ABSTRACT: The role of dietary linolenic acid (LN), vitamin E (E) and vitamin C (C) in regulating fish growth and immune response was tested on juvenile darkbarbel catfish Pelteobagrus vachelli. Five dietary combinations were used (−E−LN, +E−LN, −E+LN, +E+LN and −C+E+LN; ‘+’ with addition and ‘−’ without addition) in triplicate. Weight gain was highest in the −E+LN feeding group. Red blood cell in fish fed the +E+LN diet was highest. The haematocrit and haemoglobin of fish fed the −E+LN diet was lowest. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in fish fed the −E+LN diet were higher than those in fish fed other diets. Malondialdehyde in fish fed the −C+E+LN diet was highest. Fish fed the +E+LN diet had higher levels of lysozyme activity, serum protein, complements C3 and C4, and immunoglobulin contents than fish fed other diets. Fish fed the +E+LN diet showed lower mortality and higher antibody titre than fish fed other diets after the fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 day. This study suggests that the growth of darkbabel catfish is improved by increasing dietary linolenic acids. The diets with high linolenic acid, vitamin E and vitamin C can enhance the immune response and resistance in darkbarbel catfish challenged with A. hydrophila.Aquaculture Nutrition 02/2015; DOI:10.1111/anu.12287 · 1.67 Impact Factor