Article

Anesthesia suppresses nonsynchronous responses to repetitive broadband stimuli.

University of Oklahoma, 865 Asp Avenue, Felgar Hall 210, Norman, OK 73019, USA.
Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 3.12). 04/2007; 145(1):357-69. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2006.11.043
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although many aspects of sensory processing are qualitatively similar in awake and anesthetized subjects, important state-dependent differences are known to exist. To investigate the effects of anesthesia on temporal processing in rat auditory cortex, multi-unit neural responses to trains of broadband clicks were recorded prior to, 15 min following, and 5 h following the administration of a ketamine-based anesthetic. While responses to clicks in isolation were relatively stable between states, responses to subsequent clicks exhibited increases in latency, peak latency, response duration, and post-onset suppression under anesthesia. Ketamine anesthetic reduced the maximum rate at which multi-unit clusters entrained to repeated clicks. No multi-unit clusters entrained to stimulus presentation rates greater than 33 Hz under anesthesia, compared with 85% and 81% in the pre- and post-anesthetic condition, respectively. Anesthesia also induced oscillatory activity that was not present in awake subjects. Finally, ketamine anesthesia abolished all tonic excitatory and suppressive nonsynchronous responses to click trains. The results of this study suggest that ketamine-based anesthesia significantly alters neural coding of broadband click trains in auditory cortex.

0 0
 · 
0 Bookmarks
 · 
76 Views
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cortical representation of time-varying features of acoustic signals is a fundamental issue of acoustic processing remaining unresolved. The rat is a widely used animal model for auditory cortical processing. Though some electrophysiological studies have investigated the neural responses to temporal repetitive sounds in the auditory cortex (AC) of rats, most of them were conducted under anesthetized condition. Recently, it has been shown that anesthesia could significantly alter the temporal patterns of neural response. For this reason, we systematically examined the single-unit neural responses to click-trains in the core region of rat AC under awake condition. Consistent with the reports on anesthetized rats, we confirmed the existence of characteristic tonotopic organizations, which were used to divide the AC into anterior auditory field (AAF), primary auditory cortex (A1) and posterior auditory field (PAF). We further found that the neuron's capability to synchronize to the temporal repetitive stimuli progressively decreased along the anterior-to-posterior direction of AC. The median of maximum synchronization rate was 64, 32 and 16 Hz in AAF, A1 and PAF, respectively. On the other hand, the percentage of neurons, which showed non-synchronized responses and could represent the stimulus repetition rate by the mean firing rate, increased from 7% in AAF and A1 to 20% in PAF. These results suggest that the temporal resolution of acoustic processing gradually increases from the anterior to posterior part of AC, and thus there may be a hierarchical stream along this direction of rat AC.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e64288. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many anaesthetics commonly used in auditory research severely depress cortical responses, particularly in the supragranular layers of the primary auditory cortex and in non-primary areas. This is particularly true when stimuli other than simple tones are presented. Although awake preparations allow better preservation of the neuronal responses, there is an inherent limitation to this approach whenever the physiological data need to be combined with histological reconstruction or anatomical tracing. Here we tested the efficacy of an opiate-based anaesthetic regime to study physiological responses in the primary auditory cortex and middle lateral belt area. Adult marmosets were anaesthetized using a combination of sufentanil (8 μg/kg/h, i.v.) and N(2) O (70%). Unit activity was recorded throughout the cortical layers, in response to auditory stimuli presented binaurally. Stimuli consisted of a battery of tones presented at different intensities, as well as two marmoset calls ('Tsik' and 'Twitter'). In addition to robust monotonic and non-monotonic responses to tones, we found that the neuronal activity reflected various aspects of the calls, including 'on' and 'off' components, and temporal fluctuations. Both phasic and tonic activities, as well as excitatory and inhibitory components, were observed. Furthermore, a late component (100-250 ms post-offset) was apparent. Our results indicate that the sufentanil/N(2) O combination allows better preservation of response patterns in both the core and belt auditory cortex, in comparison with anaesthetics usually employed in auditory physiology. This anaesthetic regime holds promise in enabling the physiological study of complex auditory responses in acute preparations, combined with detailed anatomical and histological investigation.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 12/2012; · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous studies in both humans and animals have documented improved performance following discrimination training. This enhanced performance is often associated with cortical response changes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that long-term speech training on multiple tasks can improve primary auditory cortex (A1) responses compared to rats trained on a single speech discrimination task or experimentally naïve rats. Specifically, we compared the percent of A1 responding to trained sounds, the responses to both trained and untrained sounds, receptive field properties of A1 neurons, and the neural discrimination of pairs of speech sounds in speech trained and naïve rats. Speech training led to accurate discrimination of consonant and vowel sounds, but did not enhance A1 response strength or the neural discrimination of these sounds. Speech training altered tone responses in rats trained on six speech discrimination tasks but not in rats trained on a single speech discrimination task. Extensive speech training resulted in broader frequency tuning, shorter onset latencies, a decreased driven response to tones, and caused a shift in the frequency map to favor tones in the range where speech sounds are the loudest. Both the number of trained tasks and the number of days of training strongly predict the percent of A1 responding to a low frequency tone. Rats trained on a single speech discrimination task performed less accurately than rats trained on multiple tasks and did not exhibit A1 response changes. Our results indicate that extensive speech training can reorganize the A1 frequency map, which may have downstream consequences on speech sound processing.
    Behavioural brain research 01/2014; 258:166–178. · 3.22 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
1 Download
Available from
Jan 13, 2014