[Major chemical components of poultry and livestock manures under intensive breeding].
ABSTRACT Owing to the wide use of feed additives in modern intensive poultry and livestock production, the major components and their concentrations of domestic animal manures may be greatly changed, as compared with those in traditional breeding. An investigation on the 61 samples of chicken, pig and pigeon manures from the intensive poultry and livestock farms of Guangdong Province showed that the concentrations of total N, P and K in chicken and pig manures were obviously higher than those of traditional breeding, and the P/N ratio of three test manures was greater than that of common crops. The concentrations of total soluble salts (TSS) of test manures averaged 49.0, 20.6 and 60.3 g x kg(-1) , respectively, which were mainly composed of the sulfate and chloride of potassium and sodium. The mean concentrations of Cu, Zn and As reached 107.5, 366.6 and 21.6 mg x kg (-1) in chicken manure, 765.1, 1128.0 and 89.3 mg x kg(-1) in pig manure, and 56.1, 210.9 and 2.9 mg x kg(-1) in pigeon manure, respectively. These manures were low in Pb, Cd and Cr contents, from non-detectable to 12.0 mg x kg(-1). According to the limiting criteria of heavy metals in fertilizers, the Cu, Zn and As in the three manures were the major elements exceeding the limits, especially for Zn.
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ABSTRACT: Globally, besides human medicine, an increasing amount of antibiotics as veterinary drugs and feed additives are used annually in many countries with the rapid development of the breeding industry (livestock breeding and aquaculture). As a result, mostly ingested antibiotic doses (30–90%) and their metabolites to humans and animals, as emerging persistent contaminants, were excreted together with urine and feces, and subsequently disseminated into environmental compartments in forms of urban wastewater, biosolids, and manures. More importantly, significant amount of antibiotics and their bioactive metabolites or degradation products were introduced in agro-ecosystems through fertilization and irrigation with antibiotics-polluted manures, biosolids, sewage sludge, sediments, and water. Subsequently, accumulation and transport of antibiotics in soil–crop systems, particularly soil–vegetable systems, e.g., protected vegetable and organic vegetable production systems, poses great risks on crops, soil ecosystem, and quality of groundwater- and plant-based products. The aim of this review is to explore the sources, fates (degradation, adsorption, runoff, leaching, and crop uptake), and ecological risks of antibiotics in agro-ecosystems and possible food security and public health impacts. Three topics were discussed: (1) the occurrence, fates, and ecological impacts of antibiotics in agro-ecosystems, a global agro-ecological issue; (2) the potential ecological risks and public health threat of antibiotic pollution in soil–vegetable system, especially protected vegetable and organic vegetable production systems; and (3) the strategies of reducing the introduction, accumulation, and ecological risks of antibiotics in agro-ecosystems. To summarize, environmental contamination of antibiotics has become increasingly serious worldwide, which poses great risks in agro-ecosystems. Notably, protected vegetable and organic vegetable production systems, as public health closely related agro-ecosystems, are susceptible to antibiotic contamination. Occurrence, fate, and ecotoxicity of antibiotics in agro-ecosystems, therefore, have become most urgent issues among antibiotic environmental problems. Nowadays, source control, including reducing use and lowering environmental release through pretreatments of urban wastes and manures is a feasible way to alleviate negative impacts of antibiotics in agro-ecosystems.Agronomy for Sustainable Development 32(2). · 3.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Roxarsone (ROX) is widely used as a feed additive in intensive animal production. While animals are fed with ROX, the most commonly detectable As forms in fresh manures include ROX and small quantities of its metabolites such as arsenate (As(V)), arsenite (As(III)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the uptake, translocation and distribution of ROX, As(V), As(III), MMA and DMA in turnips, with the soil amended with 2% and 3% (w/w) chicken manure (CM) bearing ROX and its metabolites. Soil without any fertilizer was the control. The results show that only As(V) and As(III) were detected in turnip control samples. As(V), As(III) and DMA were found in all CM applied samples, but not ROX or MMA. This implies that turnip cannot take up ROX directly and accumulate MMA at detectable levels. The contents of DMA in tubers and the three As species in shoots increased with the CM rate in contrast to reduced levels of As(V) and As(III) in tubers. Increased CM rate enhanced the translocation of the three As species, especially for DMA, from tubers to shoots. DMA was the major form (42.9–61.4% in tubers and 38.1–76.3% in shoots), followed by As(III), in turnip plants fertilized with CM. The results indicate that ROX and its metabolites in animal manures can be introduced into human food chain by the way ROX → animal → manure → soil → crop.Plant and Soil 01/2009; 316(1):117-124. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the contents of heavy metal (Cu, Zn, As, Cr, Cd and Pb) in animal feeds and manures, 104 livestock feeds and 118 animal manure samples from farms of different herd size and located in northeast China were collected and their heavy metal concentrations were determined. The content of Cu, As and Cd ranged from 2.3-1,137.1 mg/kg dm, 0.02-13.03 mg/kg dm and non-detectable (nd)-31.65 mg/kg dm in pig feeds, 2.88-98.08 mg Cu/kg dm, 0.02-6.42 mg As/kg dm and non-detectable (nd)-8.00 mg Cd/kg dm in poultry feeds, and their content in cattle feeds was similar to that in poultry feeds. The typical content in pig manures was 642.1 mg Cu/kg dm, 8.6 mg As/kg dm, and 15.1 mg Cd/kg dm, which reflected the metal contents in feeds. The typical contents in poultry manures were 65.6 mg Cu/kg dm, 3.3 mg As/kg dm and 1.6 mg Cd/kg dm while the contents in cattle manures were 31.1 mg Cu/kg dm, 2.5 mg As/kg dm and 0.5 mg Cd/kg dm. Animal manure is an important source of heavy metals to the environment in Northeast China.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 08/2012; 9(8):2658-68. · 2.00 Impact Factor