Challenges and opportunities in the translation of the science of vitamins.
ABSTRACT Some 100 y after the description and naming of the first vitamin, this conference on the state-of-the-science has shown that remarkable and exciting advances have been made in our understanding of the biology, chemistry, and metabolism of vitamins, explaining their essentiality in the diet. A great deal more needs to be done in the translation of this knowledge into an understanding of the benefit of vitamin supplements to disease prevention and to health and well-being. Not only are advances in fundamental science and biology necessary, but more attention must be paid to genomics, epigenetics, behavioral science, and new techniques for evidence analysis of studies. Information relating individual vitamins or small combinations of vitamins to disease prevention is stronger than that for multivitamins, formulations that cry out for greater standardization. This large task of translating emerging science to better policy in the field of vitamin and multivitamin-mineral supplement use should occupy our attention intensively in the years to come. Issues needing more attention include the content and labeling of such products and the effects of the products on nutrient adequacy as well as in chronic degenerative disease prevention. In this quest, the development of more and better surrogate markers will be critical. Dose-response assessments of safety are badly needed for updating Tolerable Upper Intake Levels. At its best, all of these disparate types of research will require a robust interaction between the public and private sectors in a regulatory framework that supports and rewards investment in good science.
- SourceAvailable from: Md Sayedur Rahman
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- "People were being satisfactorily treated with those vitamins. Though information relating role of multivitamins in disease prevention is weaker than the individual vitamins (Rosenberg, 2007), multivitamin prescribing has became popular since its availability (Rock, 2007). Bangladesh is neither an exception, the consumption of vitamin has increased recently in Bangladesh (IMS, 2006), which perhaps resulted as consequence of entry of multivitamin into the market (BDNF, 2006). "
ABSTRACT: The impact of educational intervention on prescribing trend of vitamins at primary health care level was investigated by analyzing 2000 prescriptions containing vitamins. Prevalence of vitamin prescribing was 30.16%, 38.69% and 45.35% and contribution of vitamins in the cost of drugs prescribed in vitamin containing prescription was 27.58%, 30.40% and 41.85% at Upazilla Health Complexes (UHC), non-government organizations (NGO) and private practices (PP) respectively. Both parameters significantly (p<0.001) decreased after intervention. Prescribing of single vitamin preparations was 3.75%, 13.87% and 7.75% and appropriateness of the vitamin prescribing was 14.63%, 24.13% and 14.75% at UHC, NGO and PP respectively. Both parameters significantly (p<0.001) increased after intervention. Negligible emphasis on vitamin in pharmacology teaching at MBBS level was observed. Dependency on promotional materials of manufacturers were changed after intervention. In conclusion, knowledge deficiency due to inadequate professional training and dependency on biased information perhaps contributed in irrational prescribing of vitaminsBangladesh Journal of Pharmacology 12/2010; 5:92-7. DOI:10.3329/bjp.v5i2.7146 · 0.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress contributes to brain aging. Antioxidant treatment, especially over the long term, might confer cognitive benefits. We added cognitive testing to the Physicians' Health Study II (PHSII), a randomized trial of beta carotene and other vitamin supplements for chronic disease prevention. The PHSII is a continuation of the Physicians' Health Study (PHS), which had randomized male participants to low-dose aspirin and beta carotene. Participants include those continuing their original beta carotene assignment from the PHS, begun in 1982, and newer recruits randomized as of 1998. The beta carotene arm (50 mg, alternate days) was terminated; follow-up is ongoing for the remaining arms. Near the close of the beta carotene arm, we interviewed 5956 participants older than 65 years to assess general cognition, verbal memory, and category fluency. The primary end point was a global score averaging all tests (using z scores); the secondary end point was a verbal memory score combining results of 4 tests. We compared mean cognition among those assigned to beta carotene vs placebo. We separately examined new recruits and continuing participants. Among 1904 newly recruited subjects (mean treatment duration, 1 year), cognition was similar across treatment assignments. Among 4052 continuing participants from the PHS (mean treatment duration, 18 years), the mean global score was significantly higher in the beta carotene group than in the placebo group (mean difference in z scores, 0.047 standard units; P = .03). On verbal memory, men receiving long-term beta carotene supplementation also performed significantly better than the placebo group (mean difference in z scores, 0.063; P = .007). We did not find an impact of short-term beta carotene supplementation on cognitive performance, but long-term supplementation may provide cognitive benefits.Archives of Internal Medicine 12/2007; 167(20):2184-90. DOI:10.1001/archinte.167.20.2184 · 13.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vitamins are essential constituents of our diet that have long been known to influence the immune system. Vitamins A and D have received particular attention in recent years as these vitamins have been shown to have an unexpected and crucial effect on the immune response. We present and discuss our current understanding of the essential roles of vitamins in modulating a broad range of immune processes, such as lymphocyte activation and proliferation, T-helper-cell differentiation, tissue-specific lymphocyte homing, the production of specific antibody isotypes and regulation of the immune response. Finally, we discuss the clinical potential of vitamin A and D metabolites for modulating tissue-specific immune responses and for preventing and/or treating inflammation and autoimmunity.Nature reviews. Immunology 10/2008; 8(9):685-98. DOI:10.1038/nri2378 · 33.84 Impact Factor