Challenges and opportunities in the translation of the science of vitamins.
ABSTRACT Some 100 y after the description and naming of the first vitamin, this conference on the state-of-the-science has shown that remarkable and exciting advances have been made in our understanding of the biology, chemistry, and metabolism of vitamins, explaining their essentiality in the diet. A great deal more needs to be done in the translation of this knowledge into an understanding of the benefit of vitamin supplements to disease prevention and to health and well-being. Not only are advances in fundamental science and biology necessary, but more attention must be paid to genomics, epigenetics, behavioral science, and new techniques for evidence analysis of studies. Information relating individual vitamins or small combinations of vitamins to disease prevention is stronger than that for multivitamins, formulations that cry out for greater standardization. This large task of translating emerging science to better policy in the field of vitamin and multivitamin-mineral supplement use should occupy our attention intensively in the years to come. Issues needing more attention include the content and labeling of such products and the effects of the products on nutrient adequacy as well as in chronic degenerative disease prevention. In this quest, the development of more and better surrogate markers will be critical. Dose-response assessments of safety are badly needed for updating Tolerable Upper Intake Levels. At its best, all of these disparate types of research will require a robust interaction between the public and private sectors in a regulatory framework that supports and rewards investment in good science.
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ABSTRACT: Vitamins are essential constituents of our diet that have long been known to influence the immune system. Vitamins A and D have received particular attention in recent years as these vitamins have been shown to have an unexpected and crucial effect on the immune response. We present and discuss our current understanding of the essential roles of vitamins in modulating a broad range of immune processes, such as lymphocyte activation and proliferation, T-helper-cell differentiation, tissue-specific lymphocyte homing, the production of specific antibody isotypes and regulation of the immune response. Finally, we discuss the clinical potential of vitamin A and D metabolites for modulating tissue-specific immune responses and for preventing and/or treating inflammation and autoimmunity.Nature reviews. Immunology 10/2008; 8(9):685-98. · 33.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite widespread use of multivitamin supplements, their effect on cognitive health-a critical issue with aging-remains inconclusive. To date, no long-term clinical trials have studied multivitamin use and cognitive decline in older persons. To evaluate whether long-term multivitamin supplementation affects cognitive health in later life. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a multivitamin from 1997 to 1 June 2011. The cognitive function substudy began in 1998. Up to 4 repeated cognitive assessments by telephone interview were completed over 12 years. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00270647) SETTING: The Physicians' Health Study II. 5947 male physicians aged 65 years or older. Daily multivitamin or placebo. A global composite score averaging 5 tests of global cognition, verbal memory, and category fluency. The secondary end point was a verbal memory score combining 4 tests of verbal memory, which is a strong predictor of Alzheimer disease. No difference was found in mean cognitive change over time between the multivitamin and placebo groups or in the mean level of cognition at any of the 4 assessments. Specifically, for the global composite score, the mean difference in cognitive change over follow-up was -0.01 SU (95% CI, -0.04 to 0.02 SU) when treatment was compared with placebo. Similarly, cognitive performance did not differ between the multivitamin and placebo groups on the secondary outcome, verbal memory (mean difference in cognitive change over follow-up, -0.005 SU [CI, -0.04 to 0.03 SU]). Doses of vitamins may be too low or the population may be too well-nourished to benefit from a multivitamin. In male physicians aged 65 years or older, long-term use of a daily multivitamin did not provide cognitive benefits. National Institutes of Health, BASF, Pfizer, and DSM Nutritional Products.Annals of internal medicine 12/2013; 159(12):806-14. · 16.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The impact of educational intervention on prescribing trend of vitamins at primary health care level was investigated by analyzing 2000 prescriptions containing vitamins. Prevalence of vitamin prescribing was 30.16%, 38.69% and 45.35% and contribution of vitamins in the cost of drugs prescribed in vitamin containing prescription was 27.58%, 30.40% and 41.85% at Upazilla Health Complexes (UHC), non-government organizations (NGO) and private practices (PP) respectively. Both parameters significantly (p<0.001) decreased after intervention. Prescribing of single vitamin preparations was 3.75%, 13.87% and 7.75% and appropriateness of the vitamin prescribing was 14.63%, 24.13% and 14.75% at UHC, NGO and PP respectively. Both parameters significantly (p<0.001) increased after intervention. Negligible emphasis on vitamin in pharmacology teaching at MBBS level was observed. Dependency on promotional materials of manufacturers were changed after intervention. In conclusion, knowledge deficiency due to inadequate professional training and dependency on biased information perhaps contributed in irrational prescribing of vitaminsBangladesh Journal of Pharmacology 12/2010; 5:92-7. · 0.51 Impact Factor