Disease-specific expression and regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
ABSTRACT CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) control cell proliferation; lack of C/EBPalpha correlates with increased proliferation of bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMCs) of asthmatic patients.
We sought to assess disease-specific expression of C/EBPalpha, beta, delta, and epsilon and the effects of budesonide (10(-8) mol/L) and formoterol (10(-8) mol/L).
Expression and function of C/EBPalpha, beta, delta, and epsilon BSMCs of control subjects (n = 9), asthmatic patients (n = 12), and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n = 10) were determined.
The control group expressed C/EBPalpha, beta, delta, and epsilon, which were upregulated by serum (5%). Budesonide completely inhibited C/EBPalpha and beta expression; formoterol increased C/EBPalpha expression (2-fold). C/EBPdelta and epsilon expression were not affected by the drugs. The asthmatic group did not appropriately express C/EBPalpha. Basal levels of C/EBPbeta, delta, and epsilon were upregulated by serum (5%). Budesonide and formoterol increased C/EBPbeta levels (3.4-fold and 2.5-fold, respectively), leaving C/EBPalpha, delta, and epsilon levels unaffected. The COPD group normally expressed C/EBPalpha, beta, and epsilon, which were upregulated by serum treatment (5%). Basal levels of C/EBPdelta were downregulated by serum in 7 of 10 BSMC lines. Budesonide inhibited C/EBPalpha and beta expression, upregulated C/EBPdelta (3.2-fold), and had no effect on C/EBPepsilon. Formoterol upregulated C/EBPalpha expression (3-fold) but not the other C/EBPs. Protein analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed the disease-specific expression pattern of C/EBPalpha in asthmatic patients and C/EBPdelta in patients with COPD.
The expression and regulation of C/EBPs in BSMCs of asthmatic patients and patients with COPD seems disease specific. Budesonide and formoterol modulate C/EBP expression in a drug- and disease-specific pattern.
The data could provide a method to discriminate between asthma and COPD at an early disease stage.
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ABSTRACT: The interleukin-12B (IL12B) gene encodes the p40 chain of IL-12, a pro-inflammatory cytokine that antagonizes Th2 phenotype and, hence, may have a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. In this report, we describe the identification of a novel IL12B promoter polymorphism (T-to-A exchange) at position -536. The IL12B -536AA genotype was significantly associated with asthma in the Chinese populations (P=0.011, odds ratio=2.227). The risk-associated A allele was linked to reduced expression of IL12B mRNA levels and IL12B production in asthmatic patients. Luciferase reporter assay provided evidence that risk-associated A allele reduced the promoter activity of IL12B gene compared with those of the promoter containing the protective T allele. We further observed that decreasing binding effects between the risk alleles A of IL12B and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) through A allele sequence mediated streptavidin-conjugated agarose pulldown and biotin-labelled A allele mediated electrophoretic mobility shift assay. We also observed additive effects of the risk alleles of IL12B and decreased mRNA levels of C/EBPα in asthmatic patients. Therefore, we postulated that the presence of -536A allele in IL12B promoter could predispose to the development of allergic asthma.Genes and Immunity advance online publication, 11 April 2013; doi:10.1038/gene.2013.13.Genes and immunity 04/2013; · 4.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inflammation is a central feature of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Despite recent advances in the knowledge of the pathogenesis of asthma and COPD, much more research on the molecular mechanisms of asthma and COPD are needed to aid the logical development of new therapies for these common and important diseases, particularly in COPD where no effective treatments currently exist. In the future the role of the activation/repression of different transcription factors and the genetic regulation of their expression in asthma and COPD may be an increasingly important aspect of research, as this may be one of the critical mechanisms regulating the expression of different clinical phenotypes and their responsiveness to therapy, particularly to anti-inflammatory drugs.Cell Communication & Adhesion 03/2013; · 1.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: For oxygen supply, airway wall cells depend on diffusion though the basement membrane, as well as on delivery by micro-vessels. In the asthmatic lung, local hypoxic conditions may occur due to increased thickness and altered composition of the basement membrane, as well as due to edema of the inflamed airway wall. In our study we investigated the effect of hypoxia on proliferation and pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic parameter production by human bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMC). Furthermore, conditioned media of hypoxia-exposed BSMC was tested for its ability to induce sprout outgrowth from endothelial cells spheroids. BSMC were cultured in RPMI1640 (5% FCS) under normoxic (21% O2) and hypoxic (1% and 5% O2) conditions. Proliferation was determined by cell count and Western blot analysis for cyclin E and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA). Secretion of IL-6, IL-8, ENA-78 and VEGF-A was analyzed by ELISA. BSMC conditioned medium was tested for its angiogenic capacity by endothelial cell (EC)-spheroid in vitro angiogenesis assay. Proliferation of BSMC obtained from asthmatic and non-asthmatic patients was significantly reduced in the presence of 1% O2, whereas 5% O2 reduced proliferation of asthmatic BSMC only. Hypoxia induced HIF-1α expression in asthmatic and non-asthmatic BSMC, which coincided with significantly increased release of IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF-A, but not ENA-78. Finally, endothelial sprout outgrowth from EC spheroids was increased when exposed to hypoxia conditioned BSMC medium. Hypoxia had dualistic effects on proliferative and inflammatory responses of asthmatic and non-asthmatic BSMC. First, hypoxia reduced BSMC proliferation. Second, hypoxia induced a pro-inflammatory, pro-angiogenic response. BSMC and EC may thus be promising new targets to counteract and/or alleviate airway wall remodeling.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e89875. · 3.73 Impact Factor