CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) control cell proliferation; lack of C/EBPalpha correlates with increased proliferation of bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMCs) of asthmatic patients.
We sought to assess disease-specific expression of C/EBPalpha, beta, delta, and epsilon and the effects of budesonide (10(-8) mol/L) and formoterol (10(-8) mol/L).
Expression and function of C/EBPalpha, beta, delta, and epsilon BSMCs of control subjects (n = 9), asthmatic patients (n = 12), and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n = 10) were determined.
The control group expressed C/EBPalpha, beta, delta, and epsilon, which were upregulated by serum (5%). Budesonide completely inhibited C/EBPalpha and beta expression; formoterol increased C/EBPalpha expression (2-fold). C/EBPdelta and epsilon expression were not affected by the drugs. The asthmatic group did not appropriately express C/EBPalpha. Basal levels of C/EBPbeta, delta, and epsilon were upregulated by serum (5%). Budesonide and formoterol increased C/EBPbeta levels (3.4-fold and 2.5-fold, respectively), leaving C/EBPalpha, delta, and epsilon levels unaffected. The COPD group normally expressed C/EBPalpha, beta, and epsilon, which were upregulated by serum treatment (5%). Basal levels of C/EBPdelta were downregulated by serum in 7 of 10 BSMC lines. Budesonide inhibited C/EBPalpha and beta expression, upregulated C/EBPdelta (3.2-fold), and had no effect on C/EBPepsilon. Formoterol upregulated C/EBPalpha expression (3-fold) but not the other C/EBPs. Protein analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed the disease-specific expression pattern of C/EBPalpha in asthmatic patients and C/EBPdelta in patients with COPD.
The expression and regulation of C/EBPs in BSMCs of asthmatic patients and patients with COPD seems disease specific. Budesonide and formoterol modulate C/EBP expression in a drug- and disease-specific pattern.
The data could provide a method to discriminate between asthma and COPD at an early disease stage.
"It has been shown that bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMC) isolated from asthma patients release more pro-inflammatory mediators than BSMC from control subjects [7-9]. These findings suggest that BSMC of asthma patients exhibit a hyper-reactive “primed” phenotype, which may be explained, at least in part, by an aberrant expression of the transcription regulator CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) [7,10-12]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Airway wall remodelling is a key pathology of asthma. It includes thickening of the airway wall, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMC), as well as an increased vascularity of the sub-epithelial cell layer. BSMC are known to be the effector cells of bronchoconstriction, but they are increasingly recognized as an important source of inflammatory mediators and angiogenic factors.
To compare the angiogenic potential of BSMC of asthmatic and non-asthmatic patients and to identify asthma-specific angiogenic factors.
Primary BSMC were isolated from human airway tissue of asthmatic and non-asthmatic patients. Conditioned medium (CM) collected from BSMC isolates was tested for angiogenic capacity using the endothelial cell (EC)-spheroid in vitro angiogenesis assay. Angiogenic factors in CM were quantified using a human angiogenesis antibody array and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.
Induction of sprout outgrowth from EC-spheroids by CM of BSMC obtained from asthma patients was increased compared with CM of control BSMC (twofold, p < 0.001). Levels of ENA-78, GRO-α and IL-8 were significantly elevated in CM of BSMC from asthma patients (p < 0.05 vs. non-asthmatic patients). SB 265610, a competitive antagonist of chemokine (CXC-motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2), attenuated the increased sprout outgrowth induced by CM of asthma patient-derived BSMC.
BSMC isolated from asthma patients exhibit increased angiogenic potential. This effect is mediated through the CXCR2 ligands (ENA78, GRO-α and IL-8) produced by BSMC.
CXCR2 ligands may play a decisive role in directing the neovascularization in the sub-epithelial cell layers of the lungs of asthma patients. Counteracting the CXCR2-mediated neovascularization by pharmaceutical compounds may represent a novel strategy to reduce airway remodelling in asthma.
PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e81494. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0081494 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Cellular proteins were isolated from confluent cells by dissociation in lysis buffer, (62.5 mM TriseHCL, pH 6.8; 2% sodium dodecylsulfate, 2% b-mercapto-ethanol, 10% glycerol) and analyzed by immuno-blotting for the expression of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), phosphorylated CREB (P-CREB) and atubulin (all: Cell Signaling Technology) as described earlier for other proteins  "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal cells (fibroblasts) of the airway wall respond to cholinergic stimulation by releasing pro-inflammatory and chemotactic cytokines and may thus contribute to chronic inflammation of the lung. Here, we studied the anti-inflammatory potential of olodaterol, a long acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, and tiotropium, a long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist, and whether they interact at the level of the cyclic AMP dependent signaling pathway. Pulmonary fibroblasts of asthmatic (n=9) and non-asthmatic (n=8) subjects were stimulated with the muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol and interleukin-1β (IL-1 beta) in presence or absence of tiotropium or olodaterol alone, or their combination.. We also measured cAMP levels and phosphorylation of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). As single components, carbachol, olodaterol and tiotropium did not affect IL-6 and IL-8 release. Carbachol concentration-dependently enhanced the production of IL-1β-induced IL-6 and IL-8, which was blocked by the simultaneous addition of tiotropium. The combination of olodaterol plus tiotropium further reduced IL-6 and IL-8 release. Olodaterol induced cAMP and the phosphorylation of CREB, an effect counteracted by carbachol, but rescued by tiotropium. We conclude that olodaterol plus tiotropium cooperate to decrease the inflamamtory response in pulmonary fibroblasts in vitro.
"Alternatively, lithium chloride has been shown to prevent the degradation of C/EBPα protein and might be tested as a candidate drug to counteract airway wall remodelling in asthma . Similar strategies might be envisioned in the treatment of the remodeling processes in the lung of COPD patients, but with the focus on C/EBPδ . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are the two most prominent chronic inflammatory lung diseases with increasing prevalence. Both diseases are associated with mild or severe remodeling of the airways. In this review, we postulate that the pathologies of asthma and COPD may result from inadequate responses and/or a deregulated balance of a group of cell differentiation regulating factors, the CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Proteins (C/EBPs). In addition, we will argue that the exposure to environmental factors, such as house dust mite and cigarette smoke, changes the response of C/EBPs and are different in diseased cells. These novel insights may lead to a better understanding of the etiology of the diseases and may provide new aspects for therapies.
The Open Respiratory Medicine Journal 04/2012; 6(1):1-13. DOI:10.2174/1874306401206010001
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