Postoperative complications following gingival augmentation procedures.
ABSTRACT Postoperative pain, swelling, and bleeding are the most common complications following soft tissue grafting procedures; however, detailed documentation is sparse in the literature. The aims of this prospective study were as follows: 1) to compare the frequency of complication occurrence after free soft tissue grafting (FSTG) or subepithelial connective tissue grafting (SCTG) procedures; 2) to evaluate the use of an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) as the donor tissue alternative to an FSTG or SCTG; and 3) to identify possible predictors for these complications.
Seventy-five FSTG and 256 SCTG procedures were performed in 228 patients by a single operator. In five free soft tissue and 84 bilaminar graft procedures, an ADM was used instead of autogenous tissue. Variables such as the duration and location of procedures, smoking history, gender, and age were recorded. Patients were asked to fill out a questionnaire 1 week after the surgeries regarding postoperative pain, swelling, and bleeding. Data were analyzed using the chi2 test and logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios were calculated for moderate and severe adverse outcomes grouped together.
The duration of surgical procedures was highly correlated with pain or swelling post-surgically (P = 0.001). Current smokers were three times more likely to experience post-surgical swelling (P = 0.01). Patients who underwent FSTG procedures were three times more likely to develop post-surgical pain (P = 0.002) or bleeding (P = 0.03) compared to those who received SCTG procedures. When an ADM was applied instead of autogenous tissue, the probability of swelling or bleeding was significantly reduced (odds ratio [OR] = 0.46, P = 0.02 and OR = 0.3, P = 0.001, respectively).
Long surgical procedures and smoking may increase the severity and frequency of certain post-surgical complications after gingival augmentation procedures. FSTG procedures incur a higher likelihood for postoperative pain or bleeding than SCTG procedures, whereas the application of an ADM may significantly reduce the probability of swelling and bleeding.
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ABSTRACT: To learn if refractory periodontitis may be associated with defects in peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) function, phagocytosis and chemotaxis were analyzed in 31 otherwise healthy patients and 12 unaffected controls. When compared to controls, no chemotactic defects to 10 nM f-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) were detected. In contrast, phagocytosis was significantly impaired (P < 0.001). The mean rates of adhesion and ingestion of opsonized Staphylococcus aureus by PMNs were 7.1 +/- 1.7 (+/- SD) and 1.4 +/- 0.5 bacteria/100 PMNs/minute respectively for patients, and 11.0 +/- 2.4 and 3.1 +/- 0.6 for unaffected, healthy controls. While the quality of oral hygiene and access to dental care were high, a retrospective search for associated environmental variables showed that 90% (28 of 31) of the refractory patients were smokers. The frequency of smokers is particularly striking, since only 21% of adults in Minnesota use tobacco regularly. These data suggest that there is a strong association between a peripheral blood PMN defect and refractory periodontitis. Furthermore, these studies suggest that tobacco use may contribute to this association.Journal of Periodontology 12/1992; 63(11):908-13. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To report the effect of cigarette smoking on the blood flow velocity of the ophthalmic artery (OA), central retinal artery (CRA), and posterior ciliary artery (PCA) in patients who smoke at least 20 cigarettes a day. The color duplex scanner was used to measure the systolic and diastolic flow velocity of the OA, CRA, and PCA in 10 smokers and 11 nonsmokers. Both the systolic and diastolic flow velocity decreased in the OA, CRA, and PCA in smokers compared with nonsmokers. The systolic flow decreased by as much as 36% and the diastolic flow by as much as 52%. This decrease was significant for the flow velocity of the CRA and PCA but not for the OA. An increase in the resistance index was also found. The authors believe that the decrease in the flow velocity of these vessels may be due to an increase in the vascular resistance of the vessels of the retina and optic nerve head in smokers. This may be important in patients with eye disease in whom altered blood flow already contributes to the ocular or orbital pathology.Retina 02/2000; 20(4):394-7. · 2.83 Impact Factor
- Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 02/1974; 1(4):185-96. · 3.69 Impact Factor