Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an elderly Swedish population.
ABSTRACT The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in different elderly European populations has not been well studied. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, as well as its individual components, in an elderly Swedish cohort. A random sample of 778 individuals (372 men and 406 women) was selected from a 70-year-old cohort in the H70 study, a gerontological and geriatric population study carried out in Gothenburg, Sweden. The study included medical and treatment history assessments, laboratory procedures and physical examinations to determine the presence of each of the five components of the metabolic syndrome as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Of the 508 adults (243 men and 265 women) included in the study, 22.6% had metabolic syndrome. The prevalence was higher in men (26.3%) than in women (19.2%). One third of the total sample had at least one of the five risk factors for metabolic syndrome. High blood pressure (> or =130/85 mmHg or use of antihypertensive/diuretic medication) was the most prevalent risk factor in both men (68.3%) and women (50.2%), while abdominal obesity was the overall second most common risk factor (27.2% of men and 42.7% of women). The prevalence of high fasting plasma glucose (> or =110 mg/dl or use of antidiabetic medication) was 29.0% in men and 19.1% in women. Metabolic syndrome was prevalent in a significant proportion of this elderly Swedish population, highlighting the underdiagnosis of a condition that is important to treat.
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ABSTRACT: Epidemiological evidence supports a link between hyperinsulinemia and blood pressure. In nondiabetic, normotensive individuals, the male sex, age, obesity, and body fat distribution all are associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and with higher plasma insulin concentrations. Nevertheless, when accounting for the above physiological variables, blood pressure still is independently related to plasma insulin. In the general population, hypertensive individuals have multiple metabolic abnormalities (glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia). A striking pattern of overlap exists among obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Physiological studies (euglycemic insulin clamp) have shown that essential hypertension per se is a state of insulin resistance: lean, nondiabetic subjects with untreated hypertension have a mean 40% reduction in the ability of physiological hyperinsulinemia to stimulate whole-body glucose uptake. Other insulin actions (suppression of hepatic glucose output, lipolysis, lipid oxidation, and promotion of K+ uptake) are conspicuously preserved. In perfused forearm studies, local (intra-arterial) hyperinsulinemia induces subnormal rates of glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in the skeletal muscle of individuals with essential hypertension. In the San Antonio Heart Study, parental history of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is associated with hyperinsulinemia and higher blood pressure and serum lipid levels in nondiabetic probands. In this biethnic population, however, hyperinsulinemia and NIDDM are more prevalent (approximately threefold) among Mexican-Americans than non-Hispanic whites, but hypertension is more prevalent among the latter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 02/1990; 15 Suppl 5:S18-25. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The average prevalence of obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2) among European centers participating in the WHO-MONICA study between 1983 and 1986 was about 15% in men and 22% in women Prevalence figures ranged in men from 7% in Gothenburg and 22% in Lithuania and in women from 9% to 45% in the same places. Some monitoring projects or repeated surveys suggest that the prevalence of obesity has been increasing during the past 15 years in some European countries. A closer look at data from The Netherlands suggest that average weight increase in the order of about 1 kilo can be responsible for quite dramatic increases in the prevalence of obesity. This suggest that only small changes in the daily caloric balance may be sufficient to increase the number of obese subjects in populations. In The Netherlands a decrease in energy intake and fat consumption was observed between 1987 and 1993 and smoking rates remained relatively stable. This could imply that reductions in energy expenditure are the main factors responsible for the increase in the prevalence of obesity. Since the increase in the prevalence of obesity seems to occur particularly in younger age-groups, the consequences of the increase in the prevalence of obesity only become apparent many years later. Especially chronic conditions such as arthritis or conditions related to obesity but occurring later in life such as cerebrovascular accidents, chronic heart failure or breast cancer in women. The rising prevalence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus may be one of the first signs of the increasing problem of obesity in European countries.Hormone and Metabolic Research 04/1997; 29(4):155-8. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasingly common, primarily because of increases in the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle and obesity. Whether type 2 diabetes can be prevented by interventions that affect the lifestyles of subjects at high risk for the disease is not known. We randomly assigned 522 middle-aged, overweight subjects (172 men and 350 women; mean age, 55 years; mean body-mass index [weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], 31) with impaired glucose tolerance to either the intervention group or the control group. Each subject in the intervention group received individualized counseling aimed at reducing weight, total intake of fat, and intake of saturated fat and increasing intake of fiber and physical activity. An oral glucose-tolerance test was performed annually; the diagnosis of diabetes was confirmed by a second test. The mean duration of follow-up was 3.2 years. The mean (+/-SD) amount of weight lost between base line and the end of year 1 was 4.2+/-5.1 kg in the intervention group and 0.8+/-3.7 kg in the control group; the net loss by the end of year 2 was 3.5+/-5.5 kg in the intervention group and 0.8+/-4.4 kg in the control group (P<0.001 for both comparisons between the groups). The cumulative incidence of diabetes after four years was 11 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 6 to 15 percent) in the intervention group and 23 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 17 to 29 percent) in the control group. During the trial, the risk of diabetes was reduced by 58 percent (P<0.001) in the intervention group. The reduction in the incidence of diabetes was directly associated with changes in lifestyle. Type 2 diabetes can be prevented by changes in the lifestyles of high-risk subjects.New England Journal of Medicine 06/2001; 344(18):1343-50. · 51.66 Impact Factor