Conservative treatment for patent ductus arteriosus in the preterm.

Neonatal Intensive Care, Ziekenhuis Oost Limburg, Genk, Belgium.
Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition (Impact Factor: 3.45). 07/2007; 92(4):F244-7. DOI: 10.1136/adc.2006.104596
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is common among preterms, and prophylactic medical treatment has been advocated as the first-line approach. Conservative treatment may result in similar outcome, but without exposure to the harmful side effects of medication. A retrospective analysis revealed a ductal closure rate of 94% after conservative treatment with adjustment of ventilation (lowering the inspiratory time and increasing positive end expiratory pressure) and fluid restriction.
To study prospectively over one year the rate of PDA closure, and morbidity and mortality following conservative treatment.
Prospective study (1 January 2005 - 31 December 2005) including 30 newborns <or=30 weeks' gestation, all of whom were being ventilated and required surfactant. Echocardiography was performed 48-72 h after birth. Clinically important PDA was conservatively treated as described above. The percentage of children with PDA, ductal ligation and major complications was determined.
Ten neonates (33%) developed a clinical important PDA. Following conservative treatment the duct closed in all neonates (100%), and none required ductal ligation or medical treatment. The rates of major complications were no higher than those reported by the Vermont Oxford Network and in the literature.
The managed care plan resulted in an overall ductal closure rate of 100%. These results suggest that conservative treatment of PDA is a worthy alternative to prophylactic medical treatment.

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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate prognostic factors associated with surgical ligation for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in extremely preterm infants born at the limits of viability. Ninety infants who were born at 23-25 weeks of gestation and who received surgical ligation were included and their cases were retrospectively reviewed. Infants were classified into two different groups: survivors with no major morbidity (N), and non-survivors or survivors with any major morbidity (M). Clinical characteristics were compared between the groups. Possible prognostic factors were derived from this comparison and further tested by logistic regression analysis. The mean gestational age and the mean birth weight of M were significantly lower than those of N. Notably, the mean postnatal age at time of ligation in N was significantly later than that of the other group (17±12 vs 11±8 days in N and M, respectively). An adjusted analysis showed that delayed ligation (>2 weeks) was uniquely associated with a significantly decreased risk for mortality or composite morbidity after surgical ligation (OR, 0.105; 95% CI, 0.012-0.928). In conclusion, delayed surgical ligation for PDA (>2 weeks) is associated with decreased mortality or morbidities in extremely preterm infants born at 23-25 weeks of gestation.
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