Response to GnRH on day 6 of the estrous cycle is diminished as the percentage of Bos indicus breeding increases in Angus, Brangus, and Brahman x Angus heifers.
ABSTRACT Angus (n=6), Brangus (5/8 Angus x 3/8 Brahman, n=6), and Brahman x Angus (3/8 Angus x 5/8 Brahman, n=6) heifers exhibiting estrous cycles at regular intervals were used to determine if the percentage of Bos indicus breeding influenced the secretory patterns of LH in response to a GnRH treatment on Day 6 of the estrous cycle. Heifers were pre-synchronized with a two-injection PGF(2 alpha) protocol (25 mg i.m. Day -14 and 12.5 mg i.m. Day -3 and -2 of experiment). Heifers received 100 microg GnRH i.m. on Day 6 of the subsequent estrous cycle. Blood samples were collected at -60, -30, and -1 min before GnRH and 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420, and 480 min after GnRH to determine concentrations of serum LH. Estradiol concentrations were determined at -60, -30, and -1 min before GnRH. On Day 6 and 8, ovaries were examined by ultrasonography to determine if ovulation occurred. On Day 13, heifers received 25 mg PGF(2 alpha) i.m. and blood samples were collected daily until either the expression of estrus or Day 20 for heifers not exhibiting estrus to determine progesterone concentrations. There was no effect (P>0.10) of breed on ovulation rate to GnRH as well as size of the largest follicle, mean estradiol, and mean corpus luteum volume at GnRH. Mean LH was greater (P<0.05) for Angus (7.0+/-0.8 ng/mL) compared to Brangus (4.6+/-0.8 ng/mL) and Brahman x Angus (2.9+/-0.8 ng/mL), which were similar (P>0.10). Mean LH peak-height was similar (P>0.10) for Brangus (13.9+/-3.4 ng/mL) compared to Angus (21.9+/-3.4 ng/mL) and Brahman x Angus (8.0+/-3.4 ng/mL), but was greater (P<0.05) for Angus compared to Brahman x Angus. Interval from GnRH to LH peak was similar (P>0.10) between breeds. As the percentage of Bos indicus breeding increased the amount of LH released in response to GnRH on Day 6 of the estrous cycle decreased.
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ABSTRACT: Recently a protocol was developed that precisely synchronizes the time of ovulation in lactating dairy cows (Ovsynch; GnRH-7d-PGF2 alpha-2d-GnRH). We evaluated whether initiation of Ovsynch on different days of the estrous cycle altered the effectiveness of this protocol. The percentage of cows (n = 156) ovulating to the first GnRH was 64% and varied (P < 0.01) by stage of estrous cycle. Treatment with PGF2 alpha was effective, with 93% of cows having low progesterone at second GnRH. The overall percentage of cows that ovulated after second GnRH (synchronization rate) was 87% and varied by response to first GnRH (92% if ovulation to first GnRH vs 79% if no ovulation; P < 0.05). There were 6% of cows that ovulated before the second injection of GnRH and 7% with no detectable ovulation by 48 h after second GnRH. Maximal diameter of the ovulatory follicle varied by stage of estrous cycle, with cows in which Ovsynch was initiated at midcycle having the smallest follicles. In addition, milk production and serum progesterone concentration on the day of PGF2 alpha affected (P < 0.05) size of the ovulatory follicle. Using these results we analyzed pregnancy rate at Days 28 and 98 after AI for cows (n = 404) in which Ovsynch was initiated on known days of the estrous cycle. Pregnancy rate was lower for cows expected to ovulate larger follicles than those expected to ovulate smaller follicles (P < 0.05; 32 vs 42%). Thus, although overall synchronization rate with Ovsynch was above 85%, there were clear differences in response according to day of protocol initiation. Cows in which Ovsynch was initiated near midcycle had smaller ovulatory follicles and greater pregnancy rates.Theriogenology 10/1999; 52(6):1067-78. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper reports a new method for synchronizing the time of ovulation in cattle using GnRH and PGF2α. In Experiments 1 and 2, lactating dairy cows (n=20) ranging from 36 to 280 d postpartum and dairy heifers (n=24) 14 to 16 mo old were treated with an intramuscular injection of 100 μg GnRH at a random stage of the estrous cycle. Seven d later the cattle received PGF2α to regress corpora lutea (CL). Lactating cows and heifers received a second injection of 100 μg GnRH 48 and 24 h later, respectively. Lactating cows were artificially inseminated 24 h after the second GnRH injection. Ovarian morphology was monitored daily by trans-rectal ultrasonography from 5 d prior to treatment until ovulation. In Experiment 3, the flexibility in the timing of hormonal injections with this synchronization protocol was evaluated by randomly assigning 66 lactating dairy cows to 3 different treatment groups. Lactating cows received the injection of PGF2α 48 (Group 1), 24 (Group 2), and 0 h (Group 3) prior to the second injection of GnRH, which was administered at the same time in each group to ensure the second injection of GnRH was given when follicles were at a similar stage of growth. In Experiments 1 and 2, the first injection of GnRH caused ovulation and formation of a new or accessory CL in 1820 cows and 1324 heifers. In addition, this injection of GnRH initiated or was coincident with initiation of a new follicular wave in 2020 lactating cows and 1824 heifers. Corpora lutea regressed after PGF2α in 2020 cows and in 1824 heifers. All cows and 1824 heifers ovulated a newly formed dominant follicle between 24 and 32 h after the second injection of GnRH. Ten of 20 cows conceived to the timed artificial insemination. In Experiment 3, the conception rate in Groups 1 and 2 were greater than in Group 3, (55 and 46 % vs 11%, respectively). In summary, this protocol could have a major impact on managing reproduction in lactating dairy cows, because it allows for AI to occur at a known time of ovulation and eliminates the need for detection of estrus.Theriogenology 01/1995; 44(7):915-923. · 2.08 Impact Factor
Article: FOLLICULAR DYNAMICS IN ZEBU CATTLE1[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the follicular dynamics during estrous cycle in Gir breed (Bos indicus) cows. Follicular growth and atresia during estrous cycle were evaluated using a portable ultrasound device. Luteal activity was evaluated by serum progesterone levels. Cycles with two (6.67%), three (60.00%), four (26.67%) and five (6.67%) follicular waves were observed. There was no difference (P>0.05) in dominant or subordinate follicles growth or atresia rates among follicular waves. The maximum diameter of the ovulatory follicle was higher than the diameter of the other dominant follicles in cycles with four waves, and higher than the diameter of the second dominant follicle in cycles with three waves (P0.05) in estrous cycle length (21.11±1.76 and 22.25±1.71 days) or progesterone levels during diestrous (4.48±1.45 and 5.08±1.40 ng/mL) be- tween cycles with three or four waves. Follicular dynamics in Gir cattle is characterized by a higher incidence of cycles with three or four waves, associated with a low persistence of the dominant follicle.