Expression of Ki-67, cyclin D1 and apoptosis markers correlated with survival in prostate cancer patients treated by radical prostatectomy.
ABSTRACT The study was designed to analyse the prognostic value of proliferation markers Ki-67 and cyclin D1 and apoptosis in prostate cancer (PC) patients treated by radical prostatectomy.
Two hundred and eleven patients treated by radical prostatectomy for localised prostate cancer were clinically followed up for a mean of 7.3 years. The primary histopathological specimens were re-analysed to ensure uniform histoplthological grading and pT classification. A tissue microarray construction (TMA) was used in immunohistochemisty to assess the expression of Ki-67, cyclin D1 and the apoptosis marker Tag. The results were analysed with light microscopy and the findings were compared to standard histology, pT and clinical follow-up data.
The co-expression of Ki-67 and cyclin Dl (p=0.05) was common. High fraction of Ki-67 positive cells and a high fraction of apoptotic cells were often present in same tumours (p=0.05). High apoptotic rate was related to positive surgical margin status (p=0.047). Low expression of Ki-67 was related to a low Gleason score (p<0.001), an absence of either capsule penetration (p = 0.029) or perineural invasion (p=0.004). High expression of cyclin Dl was related to perineural growth (p=0.039). Prostate specific antigen (PSA) recurrence-free survival (RFS) was predicted by Gleason grade (p<0.001) and capsule invasion (p=0.006). High expression of Ki-67 (p=0.03), as well as high apoptotic rate (p=0.04) were related to a high risk of cancer death. In multivariate analysis the seminal vesicle invasion was the only independent predictor of cancer death (p = 0.01).
The expression of Ki-67, cyclin D1 and a high apoptotic rate are related to a malignant phenotype in prostate cancer, but their prognostic value is inferior to standard histological prognostic factors.
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ABSTRACT: Relative imbalance in the pathways regulating cell cycle, cell proliferation, or cell death marks a prerequisite for neoplasm. C-phycocyanin, a biliprotein from Spirulina platensis and a selective COX-2 inhibitor along with piroxicam, a traditional nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug was used to investigate the role of cell cycle regulatory proteins and proinflammatory transcription factor NFκB in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. Cell cycle regulators [cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), CDK4, and p53], NFκB (p65) pathway, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were evaluated by gene and protein expression, whereas apoptosis was studied by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and apoptotic bleb assay. Molecular docking of ligand protein interaction was done to validate the in vivo results. Cyclin D1, cyclin E, CDK2, and CDK4 were overexpressed in DMH, whereas piroxicam and c-phycocyanin promoted the cell cycle arrest by downregulating them. Both drugs mediated apoptosis through p53 activation. Piroxicam and c-phycocyanin also stimulated antiproliferation by restraining PCNA expression and reduced cell survival via inhibiting NFκB (p65) pathway. Molecular docking revealed that phycocyanobilin (a chromophore of c-phycocyanin) interact with DNA binding site of NFκB. Inhibition of cyclin/CDK complex by piroxicam and c-phycocyanin affects the expression of p53 in colon cancer followed by downregulation of NFκB and PCNA levels, thus substantiating the antineoplastic role of these agents.Nutrition and Cancer 03/2015; 67(4):1-17. DOI:10.1080/01635581.2015.1015743 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer remains a major health problem in the United States. Established clinicopathologic parameters such as Gleason score, T stage, and prostate-specific antigen levels are currently the guiding tools for prognostication and disease management. The addition of biomarkers could increase the accuracy of these parameters for predicting disease progression, response to therapy, and survival. In this regard, the goal of this study was to evaluate minichromosome maintenance complex protein 2 and Ki-67 immunohistochemical expression as predictors of outcome in prostate cancer. For this purpose, 11 tissue microarrays were constructed using tumor and nontumor samples from 428 patients. Patients were divided into short-term (mean, 2.9 years) and long-term (mean, 14.1 years) follow-up groups. End points were biochemical recurrence for the short-term follow-up group and prostate cancer-related death for the long-term follow-up group. All men in the long-term follow-up group had biochemical recurrence at the time of recruitment. Expression of both markers was higher in tumor than in nontumor glands. Percentage of minichromosome maintenance complex protein 2 was associated with Gleason score in both groups. Percentage of Ki-67 was associated with Gleason score and pathologic stage only in the short-term follow-up group. Higher minichromosome maintenance complex protein 2 percentages were associated with biochemical recurrence in the short-term follow-up group. In the long-term follow-up group, neither minichromosome maintenance complex protein 2 nor Ki-67 levels predicted prostate cancer death. In conclusion, our results suggest that in patients treated by radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer, immunohistochemistry for minichromosome maintenance complex protein 2 expression could be used to predict biochemical recurrence, independent of other known clinicopathologic factors.Human pathology 05/2012; 43(11):1852-65. DOI:10.1016/j.humpath.2012.01.007 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cyclin D1 expression and clinicopathological parameters in patients with prostate carcinoma. We assessed cyclin D1 expression by conventional immunohistochemistry in 85 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma and 10 normal prostate tissue samples retrieved from autopsies. We measured nuclear immunostaining in the entire tumor area and based the results on the percentage of positive tumor cells. The preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 8.68±5.16 ng/mL (mean±SD). Cyclin D1 staining was positive (cyclin D1 expression in >5% of tumor cells) in 64 cases (75.4%) and negative (cyclin D1 expression in ≤5% of tumor cells) in 21 cases (including 15 cases with no immunostaining). Normal prostate tissues were negative for cyclin D1. Among patients with a high-grade Gleason score (≥7), 86% of patients demonstrated cyclin D1 immunostaining of >5% (P<0.05). In the crude analysis of cyclin D1 expression, the high-grade Gleason score group showed a mean expression of 39.6%, compared to 26.9% in the low-grade Gleason score group (P<0.05). Perineural invasion tended to be associated with cyclin D1 expression (P=0.07), whereas cyclin D1 expression was not associated with PSA levels or other parameters. Our results suggest that high cyclin D1 expression could be a potential marker for tumor aggressiveness.Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] 05/2014; DOI:10.1590/1414-431X20143240 · 1.08 Impact Factor