Serological and molecular evidence that canine respiratory coronavirus is circulating in Italy.
ABSTRACT Canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) is a group II coronavirus that was firstly identified in lung samples of dogs with canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) in UK in 2003. We report for the first time the identification of CRCoV in Italy, together with serological evidence that the virus has been circulating in the Italian dog population as from 2005. Serological investigations on 216 dog sera, carried out by an ELISA test using the strictly related bovine coronavirus (BCoV) as antigen, revealed an overall CRCoV seroprevalence of 32.06% in the last 2 years. RT-PCR targeting the S-gene of CRCoV was carried out on 109 lung samples collected from carcasses of dogs submitted for diagnostic investigations. Positive results were obtained from the lungs of a dog of the Apulia region that was co-infected with canine parvovirus type 2. Sequence analysis of the S-gene fragment amplified by RT-PCR (595bp) showed similarity to group II coronaviruses, with the highest nucleotide identity (98%) to the only CRCoV strain currently available in the GenBank database (strain T101). The results of the present study show that CRCoV is present also in continental Europe, although further studies are required to determine the real pathogenic potential of the virus.
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ABSTRACT: Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) occurs frequently in densely housed dog populations. One of the common pathogens involved is canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), however little is known regarding its pathogenesis and the role it plays in the development of CIRD. The pathogenesis of five geographically unrelated canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) isolates was investigated. Following experimental infection in dogs, all five CRCoV isolates gave rise to clinical signs of respiratory disease consistent with that observed during natural infection. The presence of CRCoV was associated with marked histopathological changes in the nares and trachea, with loss and damage to tracheal cilia, accompanied by inflammation. Viral shedding was readily detected from the oropharynx up to 10 days post infection, but there was little or no evidence of rectal shedding. The successful re-isolation of CRCoV from a wide range of respiratory and mucosal associated lymphoid tissues, and lung lavage fluids demonstrates a clear tropism of CRCoV for respiratory tissues and fulfils the final requirement for Koch's postulates. By study day 14 dogs had seroconverted to CRCoV and the antibodies raised were neutralising against both homologous and heterologous strains of CRCoV in vitro, thus demonstrating antigenic homogeneity among CRCoV strains from the two continents. Defining the role that CRCoV and other agents play in CIRD is a considerable, but important, challenge if the disease is to be managed, treated and prevented more successfully. Here we have successfully developed a model for studying the pathogenicity and the role of CRCoV in CIRD.Veterinary Microbiology 11/2012; · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) is an acute, highly contagious disease complex caused by a variety of infectious agents. At present, the role of viral and bacterial components as primary or secondary pathogens in CIRD is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine influenza virus (CIV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine herpes virus-1 (CHV-1), canine distemper virus (CDV) and Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs with CIRD and to compare the data with findings in healthy dogs. Sixty-one dogs with CIRD and 90 clinically healthy dogs from Southern Germany were prospectively enrolled in this study. Nasal and pharyngeal swabs were collected from all dogs and were analysed for CPIV, CAV-2, CIV, CRCoV, CHV-1, CDV, and B. bronchiseptica by real-time PCR. In dogs with acute respiratory signs, 37.7% tested positive for CPIV, 9.8% for CRCoV and 78.7% for B. bronchiseptica. Co-infections with more than one agent were detected in 47.9 % of B. bronchiseptica-positive, 82.6 % of CPIV-positive, and 100% of CRCoV-positive dogs. In clinically healthy dogs, 1.1% tested positive for CAV-2, 7.8% for CPIV and 45.6% for B. bronchiseptica. CPIV and B. bronchiseptica were detected significantly more often in dogs with CIRD than in clinically healthy dogs (P < 0.001 for each pathogen) and were the most common infectious agents in dogs with CIRD in Southern Germany. Mixed infections with several pathogens were common. In conclusion, clinically healthy dogs can carry respiratory pathogens and could act as sources of infection for susceptible dogs.The Veterinary Journal 09/2014; · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite the high stakes attached to students’ performance on assessments of academic writing, we still know little about the challenges students face when composing in academic contexts. To begin to address this problem, two studies were designed with the following aims: to identify and describe the most prevalent types of academic writing at the secondary level, and to characterize the challenges that both English Language Learners (ELLs) and non-English-Language Learners (non-ELLs) experience with this type of writing. Findings from these studies reveal that (1) in the context of New York City schools, exposition/argument is the most prevalent genre assigned as a writing task in secondary classrooms, as well as the most valued; and that (2) while both Intermediate ELLs and non-ELLs articulated Translating (the process of articulating ideas in the conventions of written English) as the most frequent challenge, the two groups differed in the kinds of Translating challenges and in the types and range of other challenges they articulated: ELLs articulated fewer challenges specifically related to the genre of exposition than did non-ELLs. Based on these findings we suggest several new approaches to classroom diagnostic assessment of writing, and raise issues to be considered in these approaches.Assessing Writing 10/2011; 16(4):256-273.