Serological and molecular evidence that canine respiratory coronavirus is circulating in Italy.
ABSTRACT Canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) is a group II coronavirus that was firstly identified in lung samples of dogs with canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) in UK in 2003. We report for the first time the identification of CRCoV in Italy, together with serological evidence that the virus has been circulating in the Italian dog population as from 2005. Serological investigations on 216 dog sera, carried out by an ELISA test using the strictly related bovine coronavirus (BCoV) as antigen, revealed an overall CRCoV seroprevalence of 32.06% in the last 2 years. RT-PCR targeting the S-gene of CRCoV was carried out on 109 lung samples collected from carcasses of dogs submitted for diagnostic investigations. Positive results were obtained from the lungs of a dog of the Apulia region that was co-infected with canine parvovirus type 2. Sequence analysis of the S-gene fragment amplified by RT-PCR (595bp) showed similarity to group II coronaviruses, with the highest nucleotide identity (98%) to the only CRCoV strain currently available in the GenBank database (strain T101). The results of the present study show that CRCoV is present also in continental Europe, although further studies are required to determine the real pathogenic potential of the virus.
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ABSTRACT: Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) occurs frequently in densely housed dog populations. One of the common pathogens involved is canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), however little is known regarding its pathogenesis and the role it plays in the development of CIRD. The pathogenesis of five geographically unrelated canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) isolates was investigated. Following experimental infection in dogs, all five CRCoV isolates gave rise to clinical signs of respiratory disease consistent with that observed during natural infection. The presence of CRCoV was associated with marked histopathological changes in the nares and trachea, with loss and damage to tracheal cilia, accompanied by inflammation. Viral shedding was readily detected from the oropharynx up to 10 days post infection, but there was little or no evidence of rectal shedding. The successful re-isolation of CRCoV from a wide range of respiratory and mucosal associated lymphoid tissues, and lung lavage fluids demonstrates a clear tropism of CRCoV for respiratory tissues and fulfils the final requirement for Koch's postulates. By study day 14 dogs had seroconverted to CRCoV and the antibodies raised were neutralising against both homologous and heterologous strains of CRCoV in vitro, thus demonstrating antigenic homogeneity among CRCoV strains from the two continents. Defining the role that CRCoV and other agents play in CIRD is a considerable, but important, challenge if the disease is to be managed, treated and prevented more successfully. Here we have successfully developed a model for studying the pathogenicity and the role of CRCoV in CIRD.Veterinary Microbiology 11/2012; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of canine distemper virus (CDV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), and canine influenza virus (CIV). These viral pathogens are all causative agents of canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD). The sensitivity and specificity of the mRT-PCR were determined by comparing it to a rapid antigen test (RAT) or immuno-chromatography test kit and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the detection of CDV, CRCoV, and CIV antigens present in 100 clinical samples (nasal swabs and whole blood samples) from 50 dogs with respiratory disease symptoms. This study revealed that mRT-PCR had almost exactly the same performance or results were almost 100% in agreement with that of RT-PCR and RAT both in terms of the assay sensitivity and specificity which was more highly evident in detecting CIV, CDV, and CRCoV antigens present in canine nasal swab samples. Therefore, this assay could be a better alternative for the definitive and simultaneous ante-mortem detection of the three viral pathogens that cause CIRD by using nasal swabs.Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 09/2012; · 0.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Highly virulent canine coronavirus (pantropic CCoV) strains belonging to subtype CCoV-IIa were recently identified in dogs. To assess the distribution of such strains in Europe, tissue samples were collected from 354 dogs that had died after displaying systemic disease in France (n = 92), Hungary (n = 75), Italy (n = 69), Greece (n = 87), The Netherlands (n = 27), Belgium (n = 4), and Bulgaria (n = 1). A total of 124 animals tested positive for CCoV, with 33 of them displaying the virus in extra-intestinal tissues. Twenty-four CCoV strains (19.35% of the CCoV-positive dogs) detected in internal organs were characterised as subtype IIa and consequently assumed to be pantropic CCoVs. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the 5' end of the spike-protein gene showed that pantropic CCoV strains are closely related to each other with the exception of two divergent French viruses that clustered with enteric strains.Journal of clinical microbiology 10/2012; · 4.16 Impact Factor