Serological and molecular evidence that canine respiratory coronavirus is circulating in Italy

Department of Animal Health and Well-being, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Bari, Strada per Casamassima Km 3, 70010 Valenzano, Bari, Italy.
Veterinary Microbiology (Impact Factor: 2.51). 05/2007; 121(3-4):225-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.12.001
Source: PubMed


Canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) is a group II coronavirus that was firstly identified in lung samples of dogs with canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) in UK in 2003. We report for the first time the identification of CRCoV in Italy, together with serological evidence that the virus has been circulating in the Italian dog population as from 2005. Serological investigations on 216 dog sera, carried out by an ELISA test using the strictly related bovine coronavirus (BCoV) as antigen, revealed an overall CRCoV seroprevalence of 32.06% in the last 2 years. RT-PCR targeting the S-gene of CRCoV was carried out on 109 lung samples collected from carcasses of dogs submitted for diagnostic investigations. Positive results were obtained from the lungs of a dog of the Apulia region that was co-infected with canine parvovirus type 2. Sequence analysis of the S-gene fragment amplified by RT-PCR (595bp) showed similarity to group II coronaviruses, with the highest nucleotide identity (98%) to the only CRCoV strain currently available in the GenBank database (strain T101). The results of the present study show that CRCoV is present also in continental Europe, although further studies are required to determine the real pathogenic potential of the virus.

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    • "Moreover, the presence of the HE gene, which is a characteristic protein gene of the members of the betacoronaviruses, has been demonstrated in the CRCoV genome [12, 52]. Since its detection in 2003, CRCoV has been found to be present in dogs in other European countries, as well as in Canada and in Japan [53–58]. The evolution of the betacoronaviruses is closely linked, and it has been suggested that these viruses share a recent common ancestor. "
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    ABSTRACT: Since the first identification of the virus in 1971, the disease caused by canine coronavirus (CCoV) has not been adequately investigated, and the role that the virus plays in canine enteric illness has not been well established. Only after the emergence in 2002 of SARS in human has new attention been focused on coronaviruses. As a consequence of the relatively high mutation frequency of RNA-positive stranded viruses, CCoV has evolved and, with the biomolecular techniques developed over the last two decades, new virus strains, serotypes, and subtypes have been identified in infected dogs. Considering the widespread nature of CCoV infections among dog populations, several studies have been carried out, focusing upon the epidemiological relevance of these viruses and underlining the need for further investigation into the biology of CCoVs and into the pathogenetic role of the infections. This paper reports the evolutionary processes of CCoVs with a note onto recent diagnostic methods.
    Advances in Virology 07/2011; 2011(1687-8639):562831. DOI:10.1155/2011/562831
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    • "CRCoV has been detected predominantly in respiratory samples but also occasionally in samples from the gastrointestinal tract (Decaro et al., 2007; Erles et al., 2003; Yachi and Mochizuki, 2006). A high prevalence of CRCoV has been found in kennelled dog populations in which infectious respiratory disease is common. "
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    ABSTRACT: Forty faecal samples were tested by RT-PCR using coronavirus consensus primers to determine faecal shedding of canine coronavirus (CCoV) and canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) in a dog population housed at a rescue centre. Seven samples were positive for CCoV while all samples were negative for CRCoV. Sequence analysis of five CCoV strains showed a high similarity with transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) at the N-terminus of the spike protein. All strains contained an open reading frame for the nonstructural protein 7b, which is not present in TGEV, indicating that the strains were related to the previously described CCoV strain UCD-1. Two samples contained CCoV strains with 5' spike sequences most similar to type II CCoV while one sample was found to contain type I CCoV. Primers directed to the N gene allowed specific detection of all CCoV strains analysed in this study. This investigation shows that CCoV strains containing spike proteins similar to TGEV are present in the UK dog population. PCR primers directed to conserved regions of the CCoV genome are recommended for detection of CCoV in clinical samples due to high genetic variability.
    Virus Research 02/2009; 141(1):21-5. DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2008.12.009 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    • "Only one amino acid change and two synonymous nucleotide variations differentiated the two CRCoV strains and strain 240/05 showed almost 95% average amino acid identity with most of the bovine-derivative viruses. The rooted phylogenetic analysis (Fig. 2) performed on the S (a) and M/N (b) proteins confirmed the high genomic relatedness of CRCoV with BCoV and its derivatives, thus supporting data obtained previously (Decaro et al., 2007, 2008; Erles et al., 2007). Noteworthy , in the S and M/N phylogenetic trees, CRCoV 240/05 and 4182 formed a separate bunch among the group 2a CoVs, most likely as a consequence of the speciation of BCoV in the canine host. "
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    ABSTRACT: Coronaviruses (CoVs) are positive-stranded, non-segmented RNA viruses generally responsible for the emergence of respiratory and enteric disease in humans, companion animals and livestock. Their aptitude to evolve by genetic recombination and/or point mutation is recognized, thus giving rise to new viral genotypes and mutants with different tissues or host tropism. In particular, a probable origin from the strictly related bovine coronavirus (BCoV) or, alternatively, from a common ancestor has been suggested for some group 2a CoVs, including canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV). In this study, we report the sequence analysis of the viral RNA 3'-end of an Italian CRCoV, strain 240/05, together with the sequence comparison with extant bovine-like viruses including the sole CRCoV strain 4182 previously described. Interestingly, although the structural proteins show the same features of CRCoV 4182, the genomic region between the spike and the envelope protein genes of CRCoV 240/05 encodes for three distinct products, including the equivalent bovine 4.9 kDa non-structural protein and a truncated form of the 4.8 kDa protein, whereas CRCoV 4182 has a unique 8.8 kDa protein.
    Virus Research 02/2009; 141(1):96-100. DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2008.12.011 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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