Silibinin suppresses PMA-induced MMP-9 expression by blocking the AP-1 activation via MAPK signaling pathways in MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells.
ABSTRACT Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effect of silibinin, a flavonoid antioxidant from milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) on PMA-induced MMP-9 expression in MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells. Silibinin significantly and selectively suppressed PMA-induced MMP-9 expression in MCF-7. Silibinin has been found to inhibit PMA-induced MMP-9 gene transcriptional activity by blocking the activation of AP-1 via MAPK signaling pathways. Moreover, the Matrigel invasion assay showed that silibinin reduces PMA-induced invasion of MCF-7 cells. These results suggest that silibinin represents a potential anti-metastatic agent suppressing PMA-induced cancer cell invasion through the specific inhibition of AP-1-dependent MMP-9 gene expression.
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ABSTRACT: The high prevalence of liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis underscores the need for efficient and cost-effective treatments. The potential benefit of silymarin (extracted from the seeds of Silybum marianum or milk thistle) in the treatment of liver diseases remains a controversial issue. Therefore, the objective of this review is to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of silymarin by application of systematic approach. 525 references were found in the databases, of which 84 papers were retained for closer examination and 36 were deemed suitable for detailed analysis. Silymarin has metabolic and cell-regulating effects at concentrations found in clinical conditions, namely carrier-mediated regulation of cell membrane permeability, inhibition of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway, scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of the R-OH type and action on DNA-expression, for example, via suppression of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB. Pooled data from case record studies involving 452 patients with Amanita phalloides poisoning show a highly significant difference in mortality in favour of silibinin [the main isomer contained in silymarin] (mortality 9.8% vs 18.3% with standard treatment; p < 0.01). The available trials in patients with toxic (e.g. solvents) or iatrogenic (e.g. antispychotic or tacrine) liver diseases, which are mostly outdated and underpowered, do not enable any valid conclusions to be drawn on the value of silymarin. The exception is an improved clinical tolerance of tacrine. In spite of some positive results in patients with acute viral hepatitis, no formally valid conclusion can be drawn regarding the value of silymarin in the treatment of these infections. Although there were no clinical end-points in the four trials considered in patients with alcoholic liver disease, histological findings were reported as improved in two out of two trials, improvement of prothrombin time was significant (two trials pooled) and liver transaminase levels were consistently lower in the silymarin-treated groups. Therefore, silymarin may be of use as an adjuvant in the therapy of alcoholic liver disease. Analysis was performed on five trials with a total of 602 patients with liver cirrhosis. The evidence shows that, compared with placebo, silymarin produces a nonsignificant reduction of total mortality by -4.2% [odds ratio (OR) 0.75 (0.5 - 1.1)]; but that, on the other hand, the use of silymarin leads to a significant reduction in liver-related mortality of-7% [OR: 0.54 (0.3 - 0.9); p < 0.01]. An individual trial reported a reduction in the number of patients with encephalopathy of -8.7% (p = 0.06). In one study of patients with cirrhosis-related diabetes mellitus, the insulin requirement was reduced by -25% (p < 0.01). We conclude that available evidence suggests that silymarin may play a role in the therapy of (alcoholic) liver cirrhosis. Silymarin is has a good safety record and only rare case reports of gastrointestinal disturbances and allergic skin rashes have been published. This review does not aim to replace future prospective trials aiming to provide the 'final' evidence of the efficacy of silymarin.Drugs 01/2001; 61(14):2035-63. · 4.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tumor cell invasion is now viewed as dysregulated physiologic invasion. Investigators have started to define the molecular events that are involved in this process. We find that there are many functional similarities with molecular events involved in physiologic process such as angiogenesis and wound healing. Matrix metalloproteinase activity is a common denominator in these pathologic conditions and in normal responses. Studies using endogenous metalloproteinase inhibitors suggest that targeting matrix metalloproteinase activity may prevent tumor cell dissemination. The development and pre-clinical testing of novel, low molecular weight matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors support this concept and suggest that an exciting new era of cancer therapy is on the horizon.Seminars in Cancer Biology 07/1996; 7(3):147-54. · 7.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of endoproteinases, are implicated in cardiac remodeling. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), which is increased in the heart following myocardial infarction, increases expression and activity of MMP-2 (gelatinase A) and -9 (gelatinase B) in cardiac fibroblasts. Previously, we have shown that IL-1beta activates ERK1/2, JNKs, and protein kinase C (PKC). However, signaling pathways involved in the regulation of MMP-2 and -9 expression and activity are not yet well understood. Using adult rat cardiac fibroblasts, we show that inhibition of ERK1/2 and JNKs inhibits IL-1beta-stimulated increases in MMP-9, not MMP-2, expression and activity. Chelerythrine, an inhibitor of PKC, inhibited activation of ERK1/2 and JNKs and expression and activity of both MMPs. Selective inhibition of PKC-alpha/beta1 using Gö6976 inhibited JNKs activation and the expression and activity of MMP-9, not MMP-2. Inhibition of PKC-theta and PKC-zeta using pseudosubstrates inhibited IL-1beta-stimulated activation of ERK1/2 and JNKs and the expression and activity of MMP-2 and -9. Inhibition of PKC-epsilon had no effect. IL-1beta activated NF-kappaB pathway as measured by increased phosphorylation of IKKalpha/beta and IkappaB-alpha. Inhibition of ERK1/2, JNKs, and PKC-alpha/beta1 had no effect on NF-kappaB activation, whereas inhibition of PKC-theta and PKC-zeta inhibited IL-1beta-stimulated activation of NF-kappaB. SN50, NF-kappaB inhibitor peptide, inhibited IL-1beta-stimulated increases in MMP-2 and -9 expression and activity. These observations suggest that 1) activation of ERK1/2 and JNKs plays a critical role in the regulation of MMP-9, not MMP-2, expression and activity; 2) PKC-alpha/beta1 act upstream of JNKs, not ERK1/2; 3) PKC-zeta and -theta, not PKC-epsilon, act upstream of JNKs, ERK1/2, and NF-kappaB; and 4) activation of NF-kappaB stimulates expression and activity of MMP-2 and -9.Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2004; 279(38):39513-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor