Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: targets for commercially important insecticides.
ABSTRACT Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are major excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In insects, nAChRs are the target site for several naturally occurring and synthetic compounds that exhibit potent insecticidal activity. Several compounds isolated from plants are potent agonists or antagonists of nAChRs, suggesting that these may have evolved as a defence mechanism against insects and other herbivores. Nicotine, isolated from the tobacco plant, has insecticidal activity and has been used extensively as a commercial insecticide. Spinosad, a naturally occurring mixture of two macrocyclic lactones isolated from the microorganism Saccharopolyspora spinosa, acts upon nAChRs and has been developed as a commercial insecticide. Since the early 1990s, one of the most widely used and rapidly growing classes of insecticides has been the neonicotinoids. Neonicotinoid insecticides are potent selective agonists of insect nAChRs and are used extensively in both crop protection and animal health applications. As with other classes of insecticides, there is growing evidence for the evolution of resistance to insecticides that act on nAChRs.
Article: Evaluation of genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed in vitro to neonicotinoid insecticides news.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Calypso (thiacloprid), Poncho (clothianidin), Gaucho (imidacloprid), and Jade (imidacloprid) are commercial neonicotinoid insecticides, a new class of agrochemicals in México. However, genotoxic and cytotoxic studies have not been performed. In the present study, human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were exposed in vitro to different concentrations of the four insecticides. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects were evaluated using the alkaline comet and trypan blue dye exclusion assays. DNA damage was evaluated using two genotoxicity parameters: tail length and comet frequency. Exposure to 9.5 × 10(-6) to 5.7 × 10(-5) M Jade; 2.8 × 10(-4) to 1.7 × 10(-3) M Gaucho; 0.6 × 10(-1) to 1.4 × 10(-1) M Calypso; 1.2 × 10(-1) to 9.5 × 10(-1) M Poncho for 2 h induced a significant increase DNA damage with a concentration-dependent relationship. Jade was the most genotoxic of the four insecticides studied. Cytotoxicity was observed in cells exposed to 18 × 10(-3) M Jade, 2.0 × 10(-3) M Gaucho, 2.0 × 10(-1) M Calypso, 1.07 M Poncho, and cell death occurred at 30 × 10(-3) M Jade, 3.3 × 10(-3) M Gaucho, 2.8 × 10(-1) M Calypso, and 1.42 M Poncho. This study provides the first report of genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in PBL following in vitro exposure to commercial neonicotinoid insecticides.Journal of Toxicology 01/2012; 2012:612647.
Article: Comparative Proteomic Analysis of saccharopolyspora spinosa SP06081 and PR2 strains reveals the differentially expressed proteins correlated with the increase of spinosad yield.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Saccharopolyspora spinosa produces the environment-friendly biopesticide spinosad, a mixture of two polyketide-derived macrolide active ingredients called spinosyns A and D. Therefore considerable interest is in the improvement of spinosad production because of its low yield in wild-type S. spinosa. Recently, a spinosad-hyperproducing PR2 strain with stable heredity was obtained from protoplast regeneration of the wild-type S. spinosa SP06081 strain. A comparative proteomic analysis was performed on the two strains during the first rapid growth phase (RG1) in seed medium (SM) by using label-free quantitative proteomics to investigate the underlying mechanism leading to the enhancement of spinosad yield. In total, 224 proteins from the SP06081 strain and 204 proteins from the PR2 strain were unambiguously identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, sharing 140 proteins. A total of 12 proteins directly related to spinosad biosynthesis were identified from the two strains in RG1. Comparative analysis of the shared proteins revealed that approximately 31% of them changed their abundance significantly and fell in all of the functional groups, such as tricarboxylic acid cycles, glycolysis, biosynthetic processes, catabolic processes, transcription, translation, oxidation and reduction. Several key enzymes involved in the synthesis of primary metabolic intermediates used as precursors for spinosad production, energy supply, polyketide chain assembly, deoxysugar methylation, and antioxidative stress were differentially expressed in the same pattern of facilitating spinosad production by the PR2 strain. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that four of five selected genes showed a positive correlation between changes at the translational and transcriptional expression level, which further confirmed the proteomic analysis. The present study is the first comprehensive and comparative proteome analysis of S. spinosa strains. Our results highlight the differentially expressed proteins between the two S. spinosa strains and provide some clues to understand the molecular and metabolic mechanisms that could lead to the increased spinosad production yield.Proteome Science 01/2011; 9:40. · 2.33 Impact Factor
Article: Spiroindolines identify the vesicular acetylcholine transporter as a novel target for insecticide action.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The efficacy of all major insecticide classes continues to be eroded by the development of resistance mediated, in part, by selection of alleles encoding insecticide insensitive target proteins. The discovery of new insecticide classes acting at novel protein binding sites is therefore important for the continued protection of the food supply from insect predators, and of human and animal health from insect borne disease. Here we describe a novel class of insecticides (Spiroindolines) encompassing molecules that combine excellent activity against major agricultural pest species with low mammalian toxicity. We confidently assign the vesicular acetylcholine transporter as the molecular target of Spiroindolines through the combination of molecular genetics in model organisms with a pharmacological approach in insect tissues. The vesicular acetylcholine transporter can now be added to the list of validated insecticide targets in the acetylcholine signalling pathway and we anticipate that this will lead to the discovery of novel molecules useful in sustaining agriculture. In addition to their potential as insecticides and nematocides, Spiroindolines represent the only other class of chemical ligands for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter since those based on the discovery of vesamicol over 40 years ago, and as such, have potential to provide more selective tools for PET imaging in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease. They also provide novel biochemical tools for studies of the function of this protein family.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e34712. · 4.09 Impact Factor