Long-term cocaine self-administration under fixed-ratio and second-order schedules in monkeys
ABSTRACT Studies in rodents have demonstrated that increased access to cocaine can result in increases in drug intake per unit time.
The present studies characterized long-term changes in cocaine self-administration associated with quantitatively and qualitatively different conditions of cocaine availability in monkeys.
Separate groups of rhesus monkeys (n = 6/group) self-administered cocaine (0.2 mg/kg per injection) under a fixed ratio (FR) 30 schedule for 3 h twice daily for two consecutive days each week for 1 year, or responded under a second-order FR 10 (fixed interval 3-min:S) schedule of 0.2 mg/kg per injection cocaine during daily sessions. After 18 weeks, probe sessions were conducted once per week, in which responding was maintained under a fixed interval (FI) 30-min schedule in the presence of distinct stimuli.
Weekly cocaine intakes under the FR schedule were stable in three subjects, but increased progressively in three monkeys over 1 year. In contrast, response rates under the second-order schedule were low and stable over time. Responding under the FI 30-min schedule was higher for monkeys in the FR group and pattern of responding was not indicative of FI performance, perhaps due to experimental history.
These data suggest that increases in cocaine intake can be observed under ratio schedules in monkeys. The use of an FI 30-min "probe" to assess changes in "drug seeking" appeared to be influenced by experimental history. These data may aid in the development of behavioral models of cocaine abuse, which focus on the compulsive nature of drug taking.
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- "A drug that serves as a reinforcer under one schedule of reinforcement will typically serve as a reinforcer under other schedules of reinforcement (e.g., Czoty et al., 2007); however, different schedules allow for experimenter control of different variables. The examination of self administration behavior under different schedules of reinforcement or under different conditions within a single schedule can provide valuable information with regard to the range of conditions under which doses of drugs will maintain behavior or the sensitivity of the reinforcing effects of the drug to increases in price or effort required to obtain or administer the drug. "
ABSTRACT: Abuse liability testing plays an important role in informing drug development, regulatory processes, and clinical practice. This paper describes the current "gold standard" methodologies that are used for laboratory assessments of abuse liability in non-human and human subjects. Particular emphasis is given to procedures such as non-human drug discrimination, self-administration, and physical dependence testing, and human dose-effect abuse liability studies that are commonly used in regulatory submissions to governmental agencies. The potential benefits and risks associated with the inclusion of measures of abuse liability in industry-sponsored clinical trials is discussed. Lastly, it is noted that many factors contribute to patterns of drug abuse and dependence outside of the laboratory setting and positive or negative signals in abuse liability studies do not always translate to high or low levels of actual abuse or dependence. Well-designed patient and physician education, pharmacovigilance, and postmarketing surveillance can reduce the diversion and misuse of drugs with abuse liability and can effectively foster the protection and promotion of public health.Drug and alcohol dependence 06/2009; 105 Suppl 1:S14-25. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.04.003 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Animal models have provided valuable information related to trait and state variables associated with vulnerability to drug addiction. Our brain imaging studies in monkeys have implicated D2 receptors in cocaine addiction. For example, an inverse relationship between D2 receptor availability and rates of cocaine self-administration has been documented. Moreover, environmental variables, such as those associated with formation of the social hierarchy, can impact receptor availability and sensitivity to the abuse-related effects of cocaine. Similarly, both D2 receptor availability and cocaine self-administration can be altered by chronic drug administration and fluctuations in hormone levels. In addition, cocaine self-administration can be altered in an orderly fashion by presentation of an acute stressor, such as acting as an intruder into an unfamiliar social group, which can shift the cocaine dose-response curve to the left in subordinate monkeys and to the right in dominant animals, suggesting an interaction between social variables and acute stressors. Conversely, irrespective of social rank, acute environmental enrichment, such as increasing the size of the living space, shifts the cocaine dose-response curve to the right. These findings highlight a pervasive influence of the environment in modifying the reinforcing effects of cocaine and strongly implicate brain D2 receptors.Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 10/2008; 363(1507):3223-32. DOI:10.1098/rstb.2008.0092 · 7.06 Impact Factor
Chapter: Escalation of Drug Use[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Among the different behavioral criteria used to discriminate substance dependence (or drug addiction) from other non-disordered forms of drug use, drug intake escalation presents a number of unique features that makes it particularly suitable for modeling in nonhuman animals. This criterion has stood the passage of time despite major revisions of diagnostic systems, it is common to all known drugs of abuse and it can be readily and unambiguously operationalized in laboratory animals. Here I exhaustively review evidence showing that escalation to heavy consumption of different drugs (except perhaps nicotine) can be rapidly induced in the majority of individual animals (i.e., rats) by increased drug availability. Such an escalation of drug use is probably paralleled by an authentic escalation to drug addiction, as it is associated with the co-occurrence of other addiction-like changes (i.e., increased motivation for drug use; increased difficulty to abstain from drug use; decreased sensitivity to negative consequences). In addition, during escalation of drug intake, most individual animals become increasingly responsive to drug- and stress-primed, but apparently not cue-primed, reinstatement of drug seeking after extinction. Finally, following increased drug use, most individuals present selective cognitive dysfunctions (e.g., deficits in executive functions) that may contribute to the establishment and/or persistence of addiction. Thus, the study of individuals with escalating patterns of drug use should provide a unique and valid approach to investigate, experimentally, the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the progression to addiction. Key wordsCocaine–Heroin–Nicotine–Tolerance–Compulsion–Self-regulation–Reward–Punishment12/2010: pages 267-292;