Release from Prison-A High Risk of Death for Former Inmates
ABSTRACT The U.S. population of former prison inmates is large and growing. The period immediately after release may be challenging for former inmates and may involve substantial health risks. We studied the risk of death among former inmates soon after their release from Washington State prisons.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all inmates released from the Washington State Department of Corrections from July 1999 through December 2003. Prison records were linked to the National Death Index. Data for comparison with Washington State residents were obtained from the Wide-ranging OnLine Data for Epidemiologic Research system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Mortality rates among former inmates were compared with those among other state residents with the use of indirect standardization and adjustment for age, sex, and race.
Of 30,237 released inmates, 443 died during a mean follow-up period of 1.9 years. The overall mortality rate was 777 deaths per 100,000 person-years. The adjusted risk of death among former inmates was 3.5 times that among other state residents (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.2 to 3.8). During the first 2 weeks after release, the risk of death among former inmates was 12.7 (95% CI, 9.2 to 17.4) times that among other state residents, with a markedly elevated relative risk of death from drug overdose (129; 95% CI, 89 to 186). The leading causes of death among former inmates were drug overdose, cardiovascular disease, homicide, and suicide.
Former prison inmates were at high risk for death after release from prison, particularly during the first 2 weeks. Interventions are necessary to reduce the risk of death after release from prison.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Joann G Elmore, Sep 26, 2015
- SourceAvailable from: Pamela Valera
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- "Little is known whether these same factors are associated with use among a criminal justice sample supervised in the community. Understanding factors associated with concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine use in this high-risk population is important as individuals under community corrections supervision are at heightened risk for overdose in the community (Binswanger et al., 2007). This high risk of overdose persists even though these individuals receive mandatory random drug testing as part of community supervision that carries the risk of sanctions, including jail or prison time, for use of illicit drugs. "
ABSTRACT: The use of heroin and prescription opioids has increased over the past decade. The concurrent use of opioids with other depressants such as benzodiazepines increases the risk of overdose death compared with use of either drug alone. This study examined factors associated with concurrent use of opioids and benzodiazepines in a criminal justice sample in the state of Alabama. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and urine drug screen results from 28,570 individuals who were under community corrections supervision from 2002-2012 were examined for independent or concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine use. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine associations between socio-demographic characteristics and drug use. Concurrent use was detected in 11.5% of the sample. Concurrent use of opioids and benzodiazepines or use of either drug alone was associated with being White, female, married, prescribed psychiatric medications, having seen a physician in the past two years, cannabis use, and having a drug-related offense. Concurrent users were more likely to be unemployed or disabled and have received counseling, and less likely to have completed college, live with relatives or friends, have a history of hallucinations, or have an offense against a person relative to nonusers. While significant overlap of risk factors exists between individuals with concurrent use versus sole use of opioids or benzodiazepines, individuals with concurrent use generally have more social dysfunction than individuals who tested for either substance alone. Concurrent users may need more psychosocial resources and intensive treatments to promote recovery. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.Drug and Alcohol Dependence 10/2015; 154. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.06.038 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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- "For this reason, we prefer the term 'heroin-related overdose' (HOD). Users who return to heroin after a period of abstinence are at a high risk of overdosing, eg after a period of incarceration or treatment (Darke and Hall, 2003; Binswanger et al., 2007). This makes sense in terms of the tolerance-overdose model since we know that tolerance rapidly decreases with abstinence (White et al., 1999 a). "
ABSTRACT: Heroin overdose, more accurately termed 'heroin-related overdose' due to the frequent involvement of other drugs, is the leading cause of mortality among regular heroin users. (Degenhardt et al., 2010) Heroin injectors are at greater risk of hospital admission for heroin-related overdose (HOD) in the eastern United States where Colombian-sourced powder heroin is sold than in the western US where black 'tar' heroin predominates. (Unick et al., 2014) This paper examines under-researched influences on HOD, both fatal and non-fatal, using data from a qualitative study of injecting drug users of black tar heroin in San Francisco and powder heroin in Philadelphia Data were collected through in-depth, semi-structured interviews carried out in 2012 that were conducted against a background of longer-term participant-observation, ethnographic studies of drug users and dealers in Philadelphia (2007-12) and of users in San Francisco (1994-2007, 2012). Our findings suggest three types of previously unconsidered influences on overdose risk that arise both from structural socio-economic factors and from the physical properties of the heroin source-types: 1) retail market structure including information flow between users; 2) marketing techniques such as branding, free samples and pricing and 3) differences in the physical characteristics of the two major heroin source forms and how they affect injecting techniques and vascular health. Although chosen for their contrasting source-forms, we found that the two cities have contrasting dominant models of drug retailing: San Francisco respondents tended to buy through private dealers and Philadelphia respondents frequented an open-air street market where heroin is branded and free samples are distributed, although each city included both types of drug sales. These market structures and marketing techniques shape the availability of information regarding heroin potency and its dissemination among users who tend to seek out the strongest heroin available on a given day. The physical characteristics of these two source-types, the way they are prepared for injecting and their effects on vein health also differ markedly. The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the unexplored factors that may lead to heroin-related overdose in the United States and to generate hypotheses for further study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Social Science [?] Medicine 06/2015; 140:44-53. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.06.032 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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- "From a population health perspective, excess crime rates cause substantial harm to overall wellbeing. Offender populations typically experience many negative health outcomes including higher mortality and greater burdens of chronic disease (Binswanger et al., 2007; Herbert et al., 2012; Kendall, 2013). As well offenders tend to engage in riskier behaviours like increased substance and alcohol use once released from custody (Vaughn et al., 2012). "
ABSTRACT: Alcohol use is commonly reported as a short-term criminal risk factor; however there is minimal research on the effects of alcohol dependence on crime. Canadian Aboriginal offenders exhibit both disproportionate crime and alcohol disorder prevalence. This study aims to examine the impact of diagnosed alcohol dependence on Aboriginal ethnicity and criminal sentencing in British Columbia. We used an administrative linkage database of social, health and justice system variables to develop a retrospective cohort of 70,035 offenders sentenced through courts in British Columbia from 2001-2010. We used a coefficient difference mediation analysis to evaluate the mediating effect of alcohol dependence on the association between self-reported Aboriginal status and sentencing rate. Aboriginal offenders had 1.92 (95% C.I.: 1.79,2.06) times higher odds of alcohol dependence than Caucasian offenders. Adjustment for health, social and demographic factors resulted in a 27% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 15%, 33%) reduction in the association of Aboriginal ethnicity on sentencing. Adjustment for alcohol dependence resulted in only a further reduction of 2% (95% CI: -12%, 15%). Although alcohol dependence was associated both with Aboriginal ethnicity and sentencing, it did not have a significant mediating impact on sentencing rate. Alcohol dependence was not a mediator for the relationship between sentencing rate and Aboriginal ethnicity. However, due to the proportion of offenders diagnosed with alcohol dependence, these results support alcohol misuse as an important public health policy target in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Drug and alcohol dependence 06/2015; 154. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.06.026 · 3.42 Impact Factor