Airway surface dehydration in cystic fibrosis: pathogenesis and therapy.
ABSTRACT Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease reflects the failure of airways defense against chronic bacterial infection. Studies of CF cultures, transgenic mice, and CF patients suggest that the initiating event in CF airways disease pathogenesis is reduced airway surface liquid (ASL) volume, i.e., dehydration. CF ASL volume regulation depends on a single extracellular signaling system, ATP, which renders CF airways more vulnerable to disease-causing insults (e.g., viruses) than are normal airways, which regulate ASL volume by dual ATP and adenosine signaling pathways. Clinical studies have explored the hypothesis that treating the dehydration of CF airways will be therapeutically beneficial. Inhaled hypertonic saline osmotically draws water onto airway surfaces, improves mucus clearance and pulmonary function, and reduces acute exacerbations in CF patients. Thus, rehydration therapies may slow the progression of CF lung disease in patients with established bacterial infection and may prevent the onset of CF lung disease if initiated early in life.
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ABSTRACT: Lipoxin A4 has been described as a major signal for the resolution of inflammation and is abnormally produced in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). In CF, the loss of chloride transport caused by the mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel gene results in dehydration,mucus plugging, and reduction of the airway surface liquid layer (ASL) height which favour chronic lung infection and neutrophil based inflammation leading to progressive lung destruction and early death of people with CF. This review highlights the unique ability of LXA4 to restore airway surface hydration, to stimulate airway epithelial repair, and to antagonise the proinflammatory programof theCF airway, circumventing some of themost difficult aspects of CF pathophysiology. The report points out novel aspects of the cellular mechanism involved in the physiological response to LXA4, including release of ATP fromairway epithelial cell via pannexin channel and subsequent activation of and P2Y11 purinoreceptor. Therefore, inadequate endogenous LXA4 biosynthesis reported in CF exacerbates the ion transport abnormality and defective mucociliary clearance, in addition to impairing the resolution of inflammation, thus amplifying the vicious circle of airway dehydration, chronic infection, and inflammation.BioMed Research International 09/2014; Article ID 781087. · 2.71 Impact Factor
Article: Cilia Dysfunction in Lung Disease[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A characteristic feature of the human airway epithelium is the presence of ciliated cells bearing motile cilia, specialized cell surface projections containing axonemes composed of microtubules and dynein arms, which provide ATP-driven motility. In the airways, cilia function in concert with airway mucus to mediate the critical function of mucociliary clearance, cleansing the airways of inhaled particles and pathogens. The prototypical disorder of respiratory cilia is primary ciliary dyskinesia, an inherited disorder that leads to impaired mucociliary clearance, to repeated chest infections, and to the progressive destruction of lung architecture. Numerous acquired lung diseases are also marked by abnormalities in both cilia structure and function. In this review we summarize current knowledge regarding airway ciliated cells and cilia, how they function to maintain a healthy epithelium, and how disorders of cilia structure and function contribute to inherited and acquired lung disease. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Physiology Volume 77 is February 10, 2015. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.Annual Review of Physiology 10/2014; 77(1). DOI:10.1146/annurev-physiol-021014-071931 · 14.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intense exercise evokes a rapid and transient increase in circulating cell-free DNA (cf-DNA), a phenomenon that is commonly observed in a variety of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. While the potential value of cf-DNA for the prediction of disease outcome and therapeutic response is well documented, the release mechanisms and biological relevance of cf-DNA have long remained enigmatic. The discovery of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) provided a novel mechanistic explanation for increased cf-DNA levels. Now there is increasing evidence that NETs may contribute to cf-DNA in diverse infectious, non-infectious and autoinflammatory conditions, as well as in response to acute exercise. NETs have now been firmly established as a fundamental immune mechanism used by neutrophils to respond to infection and tissue injury. On the other side, aberrant formation of NETs appears to be a driving force in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and cardiovascular disease. Thus, the emergence of NETs in the ‘exercising vasculature’ raises important questions considering beneficial effects, as well as occasional adverse effects, of exercise on immune homeostasis. This review gives an overview of the current state of research into the mechanisms of how NETs are released, contribute to host defence and participate in inflammatory disorders. We discuss the impact of exercise-induced NETs, considering a potentially beneficial role in the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases, as well as putative detrimental effects that may arise in elite sports. Finally, we propose that exercise-induced cf-DNA responses could be exploited for diagnostic/prognostic purposes to identify individuals who are at increased risk of cardiovascular events or autoimmunity.Sports Medicine 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s40279-014-0296-1 · 5.32 Impact Factor