Oral health status and treatment needs in institutionalized psychiatric patients: one year descriptive cross sectional study.

Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, Karnataka, India.
Indian Journal of Dental Research 01/2006; 17(4):171-7. DOI: 10.4103/0970-9290.29868
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Psychiatric patients are one of the special groups requiring attention as they are often neglected. Oral health is an major determinant of general health for psychiatric patients and may have a low priority in the context of mental illness. The present study was conducted to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of institutionalized psychiatric patients of Davangere.
220 psychiatric patients admitted in two general hospitals of Davangere during the period of one year were included in the study. The oral health status was evaluated with respect to caries, oral hygiene, and periodontal status.
Of the 180 examined with the response rate of 81.8%. 58.3% were males, mean age was 36.7 years, 57.8% had < 1 year of mental illness with a mean of 2.2 years, and 90% were self-sufficient. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the mean DMFT (0.92) increased with age, duration of mental illness, and irregularity of oral hygiene habits (P<0.001). Mean OHI-S score was 3.3 and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the mean OHI-S score increased with age (P<0.001). The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the CPI score increased with age, duration of mental illness, and degree of helplessness (P<0.001).
The findings of this study demonstrates low caries prevalence, poor oral hygiene, and extensive unmet needs for dental treatment.

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    ABSTRACT: Psychiatric patients have increased comorbid physical illness. There is less information, however, on dental disease, especially tooth decay, despite life-style risk factors or psychotropic-induced dry mouth in this population. Importantly, poor oral health can predispose people to chronic physical disease leading to avoidable admissions to hospital for medical causes. Using MEDLINE, PsycInfo, EMBASE, and article bibliographies, we undertook a systematic search for studies from the last 25 years regarding the oral health of people with severe mental illness (SMI). Results were compared with the general population. The two outcomes were total tooth loss (edentulism) and dental decay measured through the following standardized measures: the mean number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth or surfaces. We identified 25 studies that had sufficient data for a random-effects meta-analysis. These covered 5076 psychiatric patients and 39,545 controls, the latter from either the same study or community surveys. People with SMI had 2.8 the odds of having lost all their teeth compared with the general community (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7-4.6). They also had significantly higher decayed, missing, and filled teeth (mean difference = 5.0, 95% CI = 2.5-7.4) and surfaces scores (mean difference = 14.6, 95% CI = 4.1-25.1). The increased focus on the physical health of people with SMI should encompass oral health. Possible interventions could include oral health assessment conducted using standard checklists that can be completed by non-dental personnel, help with oral hygiene, management of iatrogenic dry mouth, and early dental referral.
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