Opportunity for natural selection and gene flow in an isolated Zapotec-speaking community in southern Mexico in the throes of a secular increase in size.
ABSTRACT Our object in this paper is to analyze the opportunity for natural selection and gene flow in an isolated Zapotec-speaking community in the valley of Oaxaca, southern Mexico, that is undergoing a secular increase in body size. Surveys were conducted in the community in 1968, 1978, and 2000, including anthropometric and census data. No secular change was found in the growth status of schoolchildren and adult height between 1968 and 1978; subsequently, major secular gains in height occurred among children and adolescents between 1978 and 2000. The 1978 household data were used to compute gene flow (3.3%) and opportunity for selection intensity (I = 1.312). Migration and other demographic information was obtained from household census data for 1978 and 2000, and mortality information was extracted from community records and archives. These data were used to compute gene flow and opportunity for natural selection. Gene flow increased from 3.3% to 4.7% and intensity of natural selection decreased from 1.312 to 0.272 from 1978 to 2000. Variance in fertility increased slightly over time (12.25 to 13.69). Opportunity for selection was dominant during the prereproductive period in 1978, but approached 0 for the mortality component in 2000, resulting in a marked decrease in the mortality component (Im) of selection (0.626 and 0.019, respectively) and total opportunity for selection (I = 1.312 and 0.272, respectively). Secular increase in height and markedly decreased opportunity for natural selection (1) were associated with better health and nutritional conditions. Genotype-environment interaction and environmental influences are apparently the predominant causes of the secular trend. If natural selection plays a role in causing the secular trend, it is a small one.
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ABSTRACT: Differential investment in offspring by parental and progeny gender has been discussed and periodically analyzed for the past 80 years as an evolutionary adaptive strategy. Parental investment theory suggests that parents in poor condition have offspring in poor condition. Conversely, parents in good condition give rise to offspring in good condition. As formalized in the Trivers-Willard hypothesis (TWH), investment in daughters will be greater under poor conditions while sons receive greater parental investment under good conditions. Condition is ultimately equated to offspring reproductive fitness, with parents apparently using a strategy to maximize their genetic contribution to future generations. Analyses of sex ratio have been used to support parental investment theory and in many instances, though not all, results provide support for TWH. In the present investigation, economic strategies were analyzed in the context of offspring sex ratio and survival to reproductive age in a Zapotec-speaking community in the Valley of Oaxaca, southern Mexico. Growth status of children, adult stature, and agricultural resources were analyzed as proxies for parental and progeny condition in present and prior generations. Traditional marriage practice in Mesoamerican peasant communities is patrilocal postnuptial residence with investments largely favoring sons. The alternative, practiced by ∼25% of parents, is matrilocal postnuptial residence which is an investment favoring daughters. Results indicated that sex ratio of offspring survival to reproductive age was related to economic strategy and differed significantly between the patrilocal and matrilocal strategies. Variance in sex ratio was affected by condition of parents and significant differences in survival to reproductive age were strongly associated with economic strategy. While the results strongly support TWH, further studies in traditional anthropological populations are needed. Am J Phys Anthropol 143:501-511, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.American Journal of Physical Anthropology 12/2010; 143(4):501-511. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Secular change in adult height of residents in a rural indigenous community in the Valley of Oaxaca was evaluated. Subjects were measured in 1971 (49 males, 26 females 19-70 years), 1978 (128 males, 124 females 19-82 years) and 2000 (155 males, 255 females 19-89 years). Heights were adjusted for estimated loss with age using two protocols; height at 21 years of age was also estimated. The effects of age and secular factors on measured and adjusted heights were evaluated through segmented linear regressions for three birth periods, <1930, 1930 through 1959 and >or=1960 which approximate significant periods in Mexican history. Secular increase in height occurred but estimated rates varied over time and between sexes. Males born before 1930 showed a secular increase in height but females did not. Adults of both sexes born 1930-1959 showed secular gains and estimated rates did not differ. The secular gain in height continued among those born 1960 and later and estimated rates were similar in both sexes. Estimated height at 21 years of age increased in males (not significant) but not in females born before 1930, showed little or no change in those born between 1930-1959, and increased (not significant) in those born 1960 and later. Combining observations on adults with those for youth in the community indicated several phases of secular change in height that varied with years of birth.American Journal of Physical Anthropology 11/2009; 141(3):463-75. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate secular change in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a rural Zapotec Indian community in southern Mexico between 1968 and 2000. Cross-sectional surveys of children 6-13 years, adolescents 13-17 years, and adults 19 years of age and older resident in a rural community in Oaxaca were conducted in 1968/1971, 1978, and 2000. Individuals present in the 1968, 1978, and 2000 surveys provided a small longitudinal component. Height and weight were measured; the BMI was calculated. International criteria for overweight and obesity were used. Overweight and obesity were virtually absent in school children 6-13 years in 1968 and 1978 and in adolescents in 1978. Small proportions of children (boys, 5%; girls, 8%) and adolescents (boys, 3%; girls, 15%) were overweight in 2000; two children (1%) and no adolescents were obese. Among adults, 7% of males and 19% of females were overweight and <1% of males and 4% of females were obese in 1971/1978, but 46% of males and 47% of females were overweight; and 5% of males and 14% of females were obese in 2000. The trends for children, adolescents, and adults were confirmed in the longitudinal subsamples. In conclusion, overweight and obesity are not presently a major problem in children and adolescents in this rural Zapotec community. Overweight, in particular, and to a lesser extent obesity have increased in prevalence among adults since the late 1970s. The results suggest adulthood as a critical period for onset of overweight and obesity in this sample.American Journal of Human Biology 01/2007; 19(5):711-21. · 2.34 Impact Factor