Crystal structure of D-erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase complexed with NAD.
ABSTRACT Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (the active form of vitamin B6) is an essential cofactor in many enzymatic reactions. While animals lack any of the pathways for de novo synthesis and salvage of vitamin B6, it is synthesized by two distinct biosynthetic routes in bacteria, fungi, parasites, and plants. One of them is the PdxA/PdxJ pathway found in the gamma subdivision of proteobacteria. It depends on the pdxB gene, which encodes erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase (PdxB), a member of the d-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase superfamily. Although three-dimensional structures of other functionally related dehydrogenases are available, no structure of PdxB has been reported. To provide the missing structural information and to gain insights into the catalytic mechanism, we have determined the first crystal structure of erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the ligand-bound state. It is a homodimeric enzyme consisting of 380-residue subunits. Each subunit consists of three structural domains: the lid domain, the nucleotide-binding domain, and the C-terminal dimerization domain. The latter domain has a unique fold and is largely responsible for dimerization. Interestingly, two subunits of the dimeric enzyme are bound with different combinations of ligands in the crystal and they display significantly different conformations. Subunit A is bound with NAD and a phosphate ion, while subunit B, with a more open active site cleft, is bound with NAD and l(+)-tartrate. Our structural data allow a detailed understanding of cofactor and substrate recognition, thus providing substantial insights into PdxB catalysis.
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ABSTRACT: PdxB catalyzes the second step in the biosynthesis of pyridoxal phosphate by oxidizing 4-phospho-d-erythronate (4PE) to 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-4-phosphobutanoate (OHPB) with concomitant reduction of NAD(+) to NADH. PdxB is a nicotino-enzyme wherein the NAD(H) cofactor remains tightly bound to PdxB. It has been a mystery how PdxB performs multiple turnovers since addition of free NAD(+) does not reoxidize the enzyme-bound NADH following conversion of 4PE to OHPB. We have solved this mystery by demonstrating that a variety of physiologically available α-keto acids serve as oxidants of PdxB to sustain multiple turnovers. In a coupled assay using the next two enzymes of the biosynthetic pathway for pyridoxal phosphate (SerC and PdxA), we have found that α-ketoglutarate, oxaloacetic acid, and pyruvate are equally good substrates for PdxB (k(cat)/K(m) values ~1 × 10(4) M⁻¹s⁻¹). The kinetic parameters for the substrate 4PE include a k(cat) of 1.4 s⁻¹, a K(m) of 2.9 μM, and a k(cat)/K(m) of 6.7 × 10(6) M⁻¹s⁻¹. Additionally, we have characterized the stereochemistry of α-ketoglutarate reduction by showing that d-2-HGA, but not l-2-HGA, is a competitive inhibitor vs 4PE and a noncompetitive inhibitor vs α-ketoglutarate.Biochemistry 11/2010; 49(43):9249-55. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The pvcABCD operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes four proteins (PA2254, PA2255, PA2256, and PA2257) that form a cluster that is responsible for the synthesis of a cyclized isocyano derivative of tyrosine. These proteins, which were identified originally as being responsible for a step in the maturation of the chromophore of the peptide siderophore pyoverdine, have been identified recently as belonging to a family of proteins that produce small organic isonitriles. We report that strains harboring a disruption in the pvcA or pvcB genes are able to grow in iron-depleted conditions and to produce pyoverdine. Additionally, we have determined the three-dimensional crystal structures of PvcA and PvcB. The structure of PvcA demonstrates a novel enzyme architecture that is built upon a Rossmann fold. We have analyzed the sequence conservation of enzymes within this family and identified six conserved motifs. These regions of the protein cluster around a putative active site cavity. The structure of the PvcB protein confirms it is a member of the Fe2+/alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent oxygenase family of enzymes. The active site of PvcB is compared to the structures of other family members and suggests that a conformational change to order several loops will accompany the binding of ligands.Journal of Molecular Biology 10/2008; 384(1):193-205. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hydroxy(phenyl)pyruvate reductase [H(P)PR] belongs to the family of D-isomer-specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases and catalyzes the reduction of hydroxyphenylpyruvates as well as hydroxypyruvate and pyruvate to the corresponding lactates. Other non-aromatic substrates are also accepted. NADPH is the preferred cosubstrate. The crystal structure of the enzyme from Coleus blumei (Lamiaceae) has been determined at 1.47 A resolution. In addition to the apoenzyme, the structure of a complex with NADP(+) was determined at a resolution of 2.2 A. H(P)PR is a dimer with a molecular mass of 34 113 Da per subunit. The structure is similar to those of other members of the enzyme family and consists of two domains separated by a deep catalytic cleft. To gain insights into substrate binding, several compounds were docked into the cosubstrate complex structure using the program AutoDock. The results show two possible binding modes with similar docking energy. However, only binding mode A provides the necessary environment in the active centre for hydride and proton transfer during reduction, leading to the formation of the (R)-enantiomer of lactate and/or hydroxyphenyllactate.Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography 05/2010; 66(Pt 5):593-603. · 12.67 Impact Factor