Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (the active form of vitamin B6) is an essential cofactor in many enzymatic reactions. While animals lack any of the pathways for de novo synthesis and salvage of vitamin B6, it is synthesized by two distinct biosynthetic routes in bacteria, fungi, parasites, and plants. One of them is the PdxA/PdxJ pathway found in the gamma subdivision of proteobacteria. It depends on the pdxB gene, which encodes erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase (PdxB), a member of the d-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase superfamily. Although three-dimensional structures of other functionally related dehydrogenases are available, no structure of PdxB has been reported. To provide the missing structural information and to gain insights into the catalytic mechanism, we have determined the first crystal structure of erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the ligand-bound state. It is a homodimeric enzyme consisting of 380-residue subunits. Each subunit consists of three structural domains: the lid domain, the nucleotide-binding domain, and the C-terminal dimerization domain. The latter domain has a unique fold and is largely responsible for dimerization. Interestingly, two subunits of the dimeric enzyme are bound with different combinations of ligands in the crystal and they display significantly different conformations. Subunit A is bound with NAD and a phosphate ion, while subunit B, with a more open active site cleft, is bound with NAD and l(+)-tartrate. Our structural data allow a detailed understanding of cofactor and substrate recognition, thus providing substantial insights into PdxB catalysis.
"The full-length PI3K-C2α gene in pBKCMV vector was obtained from Prof Peter Shepherd's laboratory . A portion of the full length PI3K-C2α gene corresponding to the amino acid residues 1421–1532 was amplified by PCR methods. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PX domains have specialized protein structures involved in binding of phosphoinositides (PIs). Through binding to the various PIs PX domains provide site-specific membrane signals to modulate the intracellular localisation and biological activity of effector proteins. Several crystal structures of these domains are now available from a variety of proteins. All PX domains contain a canonical core structure with main differences exhibited within the loop regions forming the phosphoinositide binding pockets. It is within these areas that the molecular basis for ligand specificity originates.
We now report two new structures of PI3K-C2alpha PX domain that crystallised in a P3121 space group. The two structures, refined to 2.1 A and 2.5 A, exhibit significantly different conformations of the phosphoinositide-binding loops. Unexpectedly, in one of the structures, we have detected a putative-ligand trapped in the binding site during the process of protein purification and crystallisation.
The two structures reported here provide a more complete description of the phosphoinositide binding region compared to the previously reported 2.6 A crystal structure of human PI3K-C2alpha PX where this region was highly disordered. The structures enabled us to further analyse PI specificity and to postulate that the observed conformational change could be related to ligand-binding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper outlines the approach to restrain the transportation (or car) accidents caused by dangerous vehicle behaviors, especially those of lane departure and speeding. Based on the proposed approach, the possibility of car collision is reduced by an equipped in-vehicle vision-based system that monitors the sight in front of the car and issues certain necessary warning. Meanwhile, the infrastructure of monitoring and warning system as well as related image processing techniques is proposed. Furthermore, an application for decision model to launch warning is also discussed herein. Finally, the proposed approach is validated in real road tests.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review highlights five key reactions in vitamin biosynthesis and in particular focuses on their mechanisms and inhibition and insights from structural studies. Each of the enzymes has the potential to be a target for novel antimicrobial agents.
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