Physiological and pathological consequences of identification of very small embryonic like (VSEL) stem cells in adult bone marrow.
ABSTRACT Bone marrow (BM) contains a population of self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that give rise to cells from all hemato-lymphopoietic lineages. The concept that HSC could also be plastic and be able to transdifferentiate into stem/progenitor cells for different non-hematopoietic tissues became one of the most controversial issues of modern stem cell biology. Accumulating experimental evidence suggests that contribution of BM-derived stem cells to organ/tissue regeneration could be explained not by plasticity (transdifferentiation) of HSC but rather by the presence of non-hematopoietic stem cells in BM. In this review new evidence will be presented, that adult BM contains a small population of pluripotent very small embryonic-like (VSEL) stem cells. These cells are deposited in BM early during ontogenesis and could be mobilized from BM and circulate in peripheral blood during tissue/organ injury in an attempt to regenerate damaged organs. However, if these cells are mobilized at the wrong time and migrate to the wrong place they may contribute to the development of several pathologies, including tumor formation.
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ABSTRACT: Foetal stem cells (FSCs) can be isolated during gestation from many different tissues such as blood, liver and bone marrow as well as from a variety of extraembryonic tissues such as amniotic fluid and placenta. Strong evidence suggests that these cells differ on many biological aspects such as growth kinetics, morphology, immunophenotype, differentiation potential and engraftment capacity in vivo. Despite these differences, FSCs appear to be more primitive and have greater multi-potentiality than their adult counterparts. For example, foetal blood haemopoietic stem cells proliferate more rapidly than those found in cord blood or adult bone marrow. These features have led to FSCs being investigated for pre- and post-natal cell therapy and regenerative medicine applications. The cells have been used in pre-clinical studies to treat a wide range of diseases such as skeletal dysplasia, diaphragmatic hernia and respiratory failure, white matter damage, renal pathologies as well as cancers. Their intermediate state between adult and embryonic stem cells also makes them an ideal candidate for reprogramming to the pluripotent status.Journal of The Royal Society Interface 12/2010; 7 Suppl 6:S689-706. DOI:10.1098/rsif.2010.0347.focus
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ABSTRACT: The identification in murine bone marrow (BM) of very small embryonic-like (VSEL) stem cells, possessing several features of pluripotent stem cells, encouraged us to investigate if similar population of cells could be also isolated from the human umbilical cord blood (UCB). Here our approach to purify VSEL from human UCB is described by employing a two step isolation strategy based on i) hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes followed ii) by multi-parameter FACS sorting. Accordingly, first, erythrocytes are removed from the UCB samples by hypotonic ammonium chloride solution and next, the UCB mononuclear cells (UCB MNC) are stained with monoclonal antibodies against all hematopoietic lineages including the common leukocyte antigen CD45. The cells carrying these markers (lin+CD45+) are eliminated from the sort by electronic gating. At the same time the antibodies against CXCR4, CD34 and CD133 are employed as positive markers to enrich the UCB MNC for VSEL. This combined two step approach enables to purify VSEL stem cells, which are small and express mRNA for pluripotent stem cells (PSC) (Oct-4 and Nanog) and tissue-committed stem cells (TCSC) (Nkx2.5/Csx, VE-cadherin and GFAP) similarly to those isolated from the adult BM (3-5 microm cells with large nuclei).Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 06/2008; 46(2):239-43. DOI:10.2478/v10042-008-0036-1
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ABSTRACT: The adult bone marrow (BM) harbors Sca-1+/Lin-/CD45- pluripotent very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs), which can differentiate in vitro into several lineages, including cardiac and vascular lineages. Since mobilization of stem/progenitors from the BM is a prerequisite for their participation in organ repair, we investigated whether VSELs are mobilized into the peripheral blood (PB) after acute myocardial infarction (MI). Wild-type mice (C57BL/6 strain, 6- or 15-wk-old) underwent a 30-min coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion (groups III-V, VIII-X, n=6-12/group) or a 1-hour open-chest state (sham controls, groups II and VII, n=8-12/group); mice were sacrificed 24 h, 48 h, or 7 days later and PB samples were harvested. Controls (groups I and VI, n=6/group) were sacrificed without any intervention. By flow cytometry, VSELs were barely detectable in PB under baseline conditions but their levels increased significantly at 48 h after MI, both in younger (6-wk-old) and older (15-wk-old) mice (3.33+/-0.37 and 7.10+/-0.89 cells/microl of blood, respectively). At 48 h after MI, qRT-PCR analysis revealed significantly increased levels of mRNA of markers of pluripotency (Oct-4, Nanog, Rex-1, Rif1, and Dppa1) in PB cells of 6-wk-old (but not 15-wk-old) infarcted mice compared with either controls or sham controls. Confocal microscopy and ImageStream analysis confirmed that mobilized VSELs expressed Oct-4 protein, while Sca-1+/Lin-/CD45+ hematopoietic stem cells did not. This is the first demonstration that Oct-4+ pluripotent stem cells (VSELs) are mobilized from the BM into the PB after acute MI. This phenomenon may have pathophysiological and therapeutic implications for repair of infarcted myocardium.Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 06/2008; 44(5):865-73. DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2008.02.279