Physiological and pathological consequences of identification of very small embryonic like (VSEL) stem cells in adult bone marrow.
ABSTRACT Bone marrow (BM) contains a population of self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that give rise to cells from all hemato-lymphopoietic lineages. The concept that HSC could also be plastic and be able to transdifferentiate into stem/progenitor cells for different non-hematopoietic tissues became one of the most controversial issues of modern stem cell biology. Accumulating experimental evidence suggests that contribution of BM-derived stem cells to organ/tissue regeneration could be explained not by plasticity (transdifferentiation) of HSC but rather by the presence of non-hematopoietic stem cells in BM. In this review new evidence will be presented, that adult BM contains a small population of pluripotent very small embryonic-like (VSEL) stem cells. These cells are deposited in BM early during ontogenesis and could be mobilized from BM and circulate in peripheral blood during tissue/organ injury in an attempt to regenerate damaged organs. However, if these cells are mobilized at the wrong time and migrate to the wrong place they may contribute to the development of several pathologies, including tumor formation.
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ABSTRACT: The adult ovarian surface epithelium has already been proposed as a source of stem cells and germinal cells in the literature, therefore it has been termed the "germinal epithelium". At present more studies have confirmed the presence of stem cells expressing markers of pluripotency in adult mammalian ovaries, including humans. The aim of this study was to isolate a population of stem cells, based on the expression of pluripotency-related stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4) from adult human ovarian surface epithelium by two different methods: magnetic-activated cell sorting and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Both methods made it possible to isolate a similar, relatively homogenous population of small, SSEA-4-positive cells with diameters of up to 4 μ m from the suspension of cells retrieved by brushing of the ovarian cortex biopsies in reproductive-age and postmenopausal women and in women with premature ovarian failure. The immunocytochemistry and genetic analyses revealed that these small cells-putative stem cells-expressed some primordial germ cell and pluripotency-related markers and might be related to the in vitro development of oocyte-like cells expressing some oocyte-specific transcription factors in the presence of donated follicular fluid with substances important for oocyte growth and development. The stemness of these cells needs to be further researched.BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:690415.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: It has already been found that very small embyronic-like stem cells (VSELs) are present in adult human tissues and organs. The aim of this study was to find if there exists any similar population of cells in cell cultures of reproductive tissues and embryonic stem cells, and if these cells have any relation to pluripotency and germinal lineage.Methods and results: Here we report that a population of small SSEA-4-positive cells with diameters of up to 4 mum was isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) from the human ovarian cell cultures after enzymatic degradation of adult cortex tissues. These small cells -- putative ovarian stem cells -- were also observed during cell culturing of up to 6 months and more. In general, small putative ovarian stem cells, isolated by FACS, showed a relatively low gene expression profile when compared to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human adult fibroblasts; this may reflect the quiescent state of these cells. In spite of that, small putative ovarian stem cells expressed several genes related to primordial germ cells (PGCs), pluripotency and germinal lineage, including VASA. The PGC-related gene PRDM1 was strongly expressed in small putative ovarian stem cells; in both hESCs and fibroblasts it was significantly down-regulated. In addition, putative ovarian stem cells expressed other PGC-related genes, such as PRDM14 and DPPA3. Most of the pluripotency and germinal lineage-related genes were up-regulated in hESCs (except VASA). When compared to fibroblasts, there were several pluripotency-related genes, which were up-regulated in small putative ovarian stem cells. Similar populations of small cells were also isolated by FACS from human testicular and hESC cultures. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the potential embryonic-like character of small putative stem cells isolated from human adult ovaries and their possible relation to germinal lineage.Journal of Ovarian Research 04/2013; 6(1):24. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The use of probiotics, alone or in interaction with bile acids, is a modern strategy in the prevention and treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Numerous mechanisms for hypocholesterolemic effect of probiotics have been hypothesized, based mostly on in vitro evidence. Interaction with bile acids through reaction of deconjugation catalyzed by bile salt hydrolase enzymes (BSH) is considered as the main mechanism of cholesterol-lowering effects of probiotic bacteria, but it has been reported that microbial BSH activity could be potentially detrimental to the human host. There are several approaches for prevention of possible side effects associated with BSH activity, which at the same time increase the viability of probiotics in the intestines and also in food matrices. The aim of our study was to summarize present knowledge of probiotics-bile acids interactions, with special reference to cholesterol-lowering mechanisms of probiotics, and to report novel biotechnological approaches for increasing the pharmacological benefits of probiotics.Applied biochemistry and biotechnology 10/2012; · 1.94 Impact Factor