Increased preoperative glucose levels are associated with perioperative mortality in patients undergoing noncardiac, nonvascular surgery

Department of Anesthesiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Dr Molewaterplein 40, 3015 GD, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
European Journal of Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 4.07). 01/2007; 156(1):137-42. DOI: 10.1530/eje.1.02321
Source: PubMed


To determine the relationship between preoperative glucose levels and perioperative mortality in noncardiac, nonvascular surgery.
We performed a case-control study in a cohort of 108 593 patients who underwent noncardiac surgery at the Erasmus MC during 1991-2001. Cases were 989 patients who underwent elective noncardiac, nonvascular surgery and died within 30 days during hospital stay. From the remaining patients, 1879 matched controls (age, sex, calendar year, and type of surgery) were selected. Information was obtained regarding the presence of cardiac risk factors, medication, and preoperative laboratory results. Preoperative random glucose levels <5.6 mmol/l (110 mg/dl) were normal. Impaired glucose levels in the range of 5.6-11.1 mmol/l were prediabetes. Glucose levels >or=11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl) were diabetes.
Preoperative glucose levels were available in 904 cases and 1247 controls. A cardiovascular complication was the primary cause of death in 207 (23%) cases. Prediabetes glucose levels were associated with a 1.7-fold increased mortality risk compared with normoglycemic levels (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.7 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-2.1; P<0.001). Diabetes glucose levels were associated with a 2.1-fold increased risk (adjusted OR 2.1 and 95% CI 1.3-3.5; P<0.001). In cases with cardiovascular death, prediabetes glucose levels had a threefold increased cardiovascular mortality risk (adjusted OR 3.0 and 95% CI 1.7-5.1) and diabetes glucose levels had a fourfold increased cardiovascular mortality risk (OR 4.0 and 95% CI 1.3-12).
Preoperative hyperglycemia is associated with increased (cardiovascular) mortality in patients undergoing noncardiac, nonvascular surgery.

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Available from: Miklos D Kertai, Oct 03, 2015
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    • "The association between hyperglycemia and increased risk of hospital complications is well established in both ICU and non-ICU patients (3,4,6,8,21–23). Recent clinical trials have also shown treatment with a basal-bolus regimen to be superior to SSI alone in the management of patients with T2D. "
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Effective and easily implemented insulin regimens are needed to facilitate hospital glycemic control in general medical and surgical patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This multicenter trial randomized 375 patients with T2D treated with diet, oral antidiabetic agents, or low-dose insulin (≤0.4 units/kg/day) to receive a basal bolus regimen with glargine once daily and glulisine before meals, a basal plus regimen with glargine once daily and supplemental doses of glulisine, and sliding scale regular insulin (SSI).RESULTSImprovement in mean daily blood glucose (BG) after the first day of therapy was similar between basal bolus and basal plus groups (P = 0.16), and both regimens resulted in a lower mean daily BG than did SSI (P = 0.04). In addition, treatment with basal bolus and basal plus regimens resulted in less treatment failure (defined as >2 consecutive BG >240 mg/dL or a mean daily BG >240 mg/dL) than did treatment with SSI (0 vs. 2 vs. 19%, respectively; P < 0.001). A BG <70 mg/dL occurred in 16% of patients in the basal bolus group, 13% in the basal plus group, and 3% in the SSI group (P = 0.02). There was no difference among the groups in the frequency of severe hypoglycemia (<40 mg/dL; P = 0.76).CONCLUSIONS The use of a basal plus regimen with glargine once daily plus corrective doses with glulisine insulin before meals resulted in glycemic control similar to a standard basal bolus regimen. The basal plus approach is an effective alternative to the use of a basal bolus regimen in general medical and surgical patients with T2D.
    Diabetes care 02/2013; 36(8). DOI:10.2337/dc12-1988 · 8.42 Impact Factor
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    • "Hyperglycemia is an important predictor and a risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with and without diabetes mellitus [7-9]. A number of studies have shown that the cardioprotective effects of pharmacological PreC and PostC are impaired by hyperglycemia [10-16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The current study was carried out to determine whether fasudil hydrochloride (fasudil), a Rho-kinase inhibitor, has myocardial postconditioning (PostC) activity under hyperglycemia as well as normoglycemia, and if so, whether the effects could be mediated by mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (m-KATP) channels. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital. After opening the chest, all rats underwent 30-min coronary artery occlusion followed by 2-h reperfusion. The rats received low-dose (0.15 mg/kg) or high-dose (0.5 mg/kg) fasudil or diazoxide, an m-KATP channel opener, at 10 mg/kg, just before reperfusion under normoglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions. In another group, rats received 5-hydroxydecanoic acid (5HD), an m-KATP channel blocker, at 10 mg/kg, before high-dose fasudil. Myocardial infarct size was expressed as a percentage of area at risk (AAR). Under normoglycemia, low-dose and high-dose fasudil and diazoxide reduced myocardial infarct size (23 ± 8%, 21 ± 9% and 21 ± 10% of AAR, respectively) compared with that in the control (42 ± 7%). Under hyperglycemia, low-dose fasudil (40 ± 11%) and diazoxide (44 ± 14%) could not exert this beneficial effect, but high-dose fasudil reduced myocardial infarct size in the same manner as under normoglycemia (21 ± 13%). 5HD prevented fasudil-induced reduction of myocardial infarct size (42 ± 13%). Fasudil induces PostC against myocardial infarction via activation of m-KATP channels in the rat. Although hyperglycemia attenuates the PostC, high-dose fasudil can restore cardioprotection.
    Cardiovascular Diabetology 03/2012; 11(1):28. DOI:10.1186/1475-2840-11-28 · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    • "The association between hyperglycemia and increased risk of hospital complications and mortality is well established in ICU and cardiac surgery patients (7–9). In non-ICU patients, small observational studies have also shown that perioperative hyperglycemia is associated with increased risk of infectious complications and mortality (13,14). General surgery patients with glucose levels of >12.2 mmol/L (>220 mg/dL) on the first postoperative day had a 2.7 times increased rate of infection (13). "
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    ABSTRACT: The optimal treatment of hyperglycemia in general surgical patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is not known. This randomized multicenter trial compared the safety and efficacy of a basal-bolus insulin regimen with glargine once daily and glulisine before meals (n = 104) to sliding scale regular insulin (SSI) four times daily (n = 107) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus undergoing general surgery. Outcomes included differences in daily blood glucose (BG) and a composite of postoperative complications including wound infection, pneumonia, bacteremia, and respiratory and acute renal failure. The mean daily glucose concentration after the 1st day of basal-bolus insulin and SSI was 145 ± 32 mg/dL and 172 ± 47 mg/dL, respectively (P < 0.01). Glucose readings <140 mg/dL were recorded in 55% of patients in basal-bolus and 31% in the SSI group (P < 0.001). There were reductions with basal-bolus as compared with SSI in the composite outcome [24.3 and 8.6%; odds ratio 3.39 (95% CI 1.50-7.65); P = 0.003]. Glucose <70 mg/dL was reported in 23.1% of patients in the basal-bolus group and 4.7% in the SSI group (P < 0.001), but there were no significant differences in the frequency of BG <40 mg/dL between groups (P = 0.057). Basal-bolus treatment with glargine once daily plus glulisine before meals improved glycemic control and reduced hospital complications compared with SSI in general surgery patients. Our study indicates that a basal-bolus insulin regimen is preferred over SSI in the hospital management of general surgery patients with type 2 diabetes.
    Diabetes care 02/2011; 34(2):256-61. DOI:10.2337/dc10-1407 · 8.42 Impact Factor
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