PIP5K9, an Arabidopsis phosphatidylinositol monophosphate kinase, interacts with a cytosolic invertase to negatively regulate sugar-mediated root growth.
ABSTRACT Phosphatidylinositol monophosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) plays an essential role in coordinating plant growth, especially in response to environmental factors. To explore the physiological function of PIP5K, we characterized Arabidopsis thaliana PIP5K9, which is constitutively expressed. We found that a T-DNA insertion mutant, pip5k9-d, which showed enhanced PIP5K9 transcript levels, had shortened primary roots owing to reduced cell elongation. Transgenic plants overexpressing PIP5K9 displayed a similar root phenotype. Yeast two-hybrid assays identified a cytosolic invertase, CINV1, that interacted with PIP5K9, and the physiological relevance of this interaction was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation studies using plant extracts. CINV1-deficient plants, cinv1, had reduced activities of both neutral and acid invertases as well as shortened roots. Invertase activities in pip5k9-d seedlings were also reduced, suggesting a negative regulation of CINV1 by PIP5K9. In vitro studies showed that PIP5K9 interaction indeed repressed CINV1 activities. Genome-wide expression studies revealed that genes involved in sugar metabolism and multiple developmental processes were altered in pip5k9-d and cinv1, and the altered sugar metabolism in these mutants was confirmed by metabolite profiling. Together, our results indicate that PIP5K9 interacts with CINV1 to negatively regulate sugar-mediated root cell elongation.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/1999; 274(15):9907-10. · 4.77 Impact Factor
Article: DNA chip-based expression profile analysis indicates involvement of the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway in multiple plant responses to hormone and abiotic treatments.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The phosphatidylinositol (PI) metabolic pathway is considered critical in plant responses to many environmental factors, and previous studies have indicated the involvement of multiple PI-related gene families during cellular responses. Through a detailed analysis of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, 82 polypeptides were identified as being involved in PI signaling. These could be grouped into different families including PI synthases (PIS), PI-phosphate kinases (PIPK), phospholipases (PL), inositol polyphosphate phosphatases (IPPase), inositol polyphosphate kinases (IPK), PI transfer proteins and putative inositol polyphosphate receptors. The presence of more than 10 isoforms of PIPK, PLC, PLD and IPPase suggested that these genes might be differentially expressed during plant cellular responses or growth and development. Accordingly, DNA chip technology was employed to study the expression patterns of various isoforms. In total, 79 mRNA clones were amplified and used for DNA chip generation. Expression profile analysis was performed using samples that represented multiple tissues or cellular responses. Tested samples included normal leaf, stem and flower tissues, and leaves from plants treated with various hormones (auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and brassinosteroid) or environmental factors (temperature, calcium, sodium, drought, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid). Results showed that many PI pathway-related genes were differentially expressed under these experimental conditions. In particular, the different isoforms of each family were specifically expressed in many cases, suggesting their involvement in tissue specificity and cellular responses to environmental conditions. This work provides a starting point for functional studies of the relevant PI-related proteins and may help shed light onto the role of PI pathways in development and cellular responses.Cell Research 03/2004; 14(1):34-45. · 8.19 Impact Factor
Article: Redistribution of actin, profilin and phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate in growing and maturing root hairs[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The continuously changing polar cytoplasmic organization during initiation and tip growth of root hairs is reflected by a dynamic redistribution of cytoskeletal elements. The small G-actin binding protein, profilin, which is known to be a widely expressed, potent regulator of actin dynamics, was specifically localized at the tip of root hairs and co-distributed with a diffusely fluorescing apical cap of actin, but not with subapical actin microfilament (MF) bundles. Profilin and actin caps were present exclusively in the bulge of outgrowing root hairs and at the apex of elongating root hairs; both disappeared when tip growth terminated, indicating a tip-growth mechanism that involves profilin-actin interactions for the delivery and localized exocytosis of secretory vesicles. Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)), a ligand of profilin, was localized almost exclusively in the bulge and, subsequently, formed a weak tip-to-base gradient in the elongating root hairs. When tip growth was eliminated by the MF-disrupting inhibitor cytochalasin D, the apical profilin and the actin fluorescence were lost. Mastoparan, which is known to affect the PIP(2) cycle, probably by stimulating phospholipases, caused the formation of a meshwork of distinct actin MFs replacing the diffuse apical actin cap and, concomittantly, tip growth stopped. This suggests that mastoparan interferes with the PIP(2)-regulated profilin-actin interactions and hence disturbs conditions indispensable for the maintenance of tip growth in root hairs.Planta 11/1999; 209(4):435-43. · 3.00 Impact Factor