Poly-victimization: A neglected component in child victimization. Child Abuse and Neglect, 31(1), 7-26

Crimes against Children Research Center, University of New Hampshire, 126 Horton Social Science Center, Durham, NH 03824, USA.
Child Abuse & Neglect (Impact Factor: 2.47). 02/2007; 31(1):7-26. DOI: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2006.06.008
Source: PubMed


To assess the role of multiple victimization, or what is termed in this article "poly-victimization," in explaining trauma symptomatology.
In a nationally representative sample of 2,030 children ages 2-17, assessment was made of the past year's victimization experiences and recent trauma symptoms.
Children experiencing four or more different kinds of victimization in a single year (poly-victims) comprised 22% of the sample. Poly-victimization was highly predictive of trauma symptoms, and when taken into account, greatly reduced or eliminated the association between individual victimizations (e.g., sexual abuse) and symptomatology. Poly-victims were also more symptomatic than children with only repeated episodes of the same kind of victimization.
Researchers and practitioners need to assess for a broader range of victimizations, and avoid studies and assessments organized around a single form of victimization.

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Available from: Richard Ormrod, Mar 05, 2014
    • "Existing research has generally found that childhood ETV is associated with increased trauma symptomatology (Finkelhor et al., 2007; Singer et al., 1995). Further, recent research has extended the concept of neighborhood disorganization to test individual level outcomes such as ETV and associated trauma symptoms (Stockdale et al., 2007; Turner et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to violence (ETV) is a serious concern across the north-south socioeconomic divide. While studies have found that social support is a protective factor for youth exposed to violence and trauma, little is known about the impact of trauma symptoms on forming and maintaining social relationships which are key to accessing a vital social resource that fosters resilience in youth experiencing trauma symptomatology. Building on previous models that examine the impact of neighborhoods on exposure to violence and trauma, the current study examines the impact of neighborhood disorganization on ETV among youth and ETV's effects on trauma symptoms and social relationships. Data were collected on 2242 juvenile justice-involved youth with behavioral health issues in 11 urban and rural counties in the Midwestern United States. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), our data demonstrated that living in highly disorganized neighborhoods was associated with higher levels of ETV and that ETV was positively associated with trauma symptoms. Mediational analysis showed that trauma symptoms strongly mediated the effect of ETV on social relationships. Freely estimating structural paths by gender revealed that hypothesized associations between these variables were stronger for females than males. Findings here highlight the need to provide trauma-informed care to help youth to build and maintain social relationships. Identification and treatment of trauma symptoms that is culturally informed is a critical first step in ensuring that identified protective factors in local contexts, such as social relations and social support, have opportunities to minimize the impact of ETV among youth across northern and southern nations.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 10/2015; 146. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.10.013 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    • "Till date, growing evidence has acknowledged the co-occurrence of multiple types of severe adversities (Mullen et al., 1996; Higgins and McCabe, 2001; Diaz et al., 2002; Clemmons et al., 2003; Dong et al., 2004; Stevens et al., 2005; Arata et al., 2007; Finkelhor et al., 2007, 2009; Turner et al., 2010; Greeson et al., 2011; Trickett et al., 2011) and their greater risk for subsequent trauma exposure and cumulative clinical impairment compared with singly traumatized youth (Schumm et al., 2006; Finkelhor et al., 2007, 2009; Cloitre et al., 2009; Margolin et al., 2009; Shen, 2009; Heim et al., 2010). However, numerous studies highlight the additive effect of child and adolescent multi-type maltreatment on later symptom complexity and psychopathology, including internalizing (Danielson et al., 2005; Schumm et al., 2006; Anda et al., 2007; Sachs-Ericsson et al., 2007; Widom et al., 2007; Ford et al., 2010), externalizing (Brown and Anderson, 1991; Herrenkohl et al., 1997; Finkelhor et al., 2009; Ford et al., 2009, 2010; Shen, 2009), and trauma symptoms (Boney- McCoy and Finkelhor, 1996; Mulder et al., 1998; Schaaf and McCanne, 1998; Finkelhor et al., 2007, 2009; Vranceanu et al., 2007; Shen, 2009; Ford et al., 2010). Following this large amount of studies, it is understandable that trauma may be referred not only as a present-or-absent construct but also includes dimensional aspects, considering the multiplicity of maltreatment forms observed as well as the frequency of traumatic exposure. "
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    ABSTRACT: Research on the etiology of adult psychopathology and its relationship with childhood trauma has focused primarily on specific forms of maltreatment. This study developed an instrument for the assessment of childhood and adolescence trauma that would aid in identifying the role of co-occurring childhood stressors and chronic adverse conditions. The Complex Trauma Questionnaire (ComplexTQ), in both clinician and self-report versions, is a measure for the assessment of multi-type maltreatment: physical, psychological, and sexual abuse; physical and emotional neglect as well as other traumatic experiences, such rejection, role reversal, witnessing domestic violence, separations, and losses. The four-point Likert scale allows to specifically indicate with which caregiver the traumatic experience has occurred. A total of 229 participants, a sample of 79 nonclinical and that of 150 high-risk and clinical participants, were assessed with the ComplexTQ clinician version applied to Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) transcripts. Initial analyses indicate acceptable inter-rater reliability. A good fit to a 6-factor model regarding the experience with the mother and to a 5-factor model with the experience with the father was obtained; the internal consistency of factors derived was good. Convergent validity was provided with the AAI scales. ComplexTQ factors discriminated normative from high-risk and clinical samples. The findings suggest a promising, reliable, and valid measurement of early relational trauma that is reported; furthermore, it is easy to complete and is useful for both research and clinical practice.
    Frontiers in Psychology 09/2015; 6:1323. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01323 · 2.80 Impact Factor
    • "substance abuse, behavior problems). It was also seen that children who experience poly-victimization, showed more clinically significant symptoms than those who experienced any single abuse or traumatic event (Finkelhor et al., 2007; Turner et al., 2006) such as emotional, physical or sexual abuse (Turner et al., 2010). These adverse effects of poly-victimization were found in research conducted by different types of methodology , regardless of the type of victimization, abuse, the age of the sample or the mental health (Leventhal, 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Street children are vulnerable to a number of problems throughout their lives. Poly-victimization covers the different domains of the difficulties they face on streets, it is also notable to find out the impact of poly-victimization on the mental health of street children. Aims: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between poly-victimization and mental health in street children of Lahore city. It was hypothesized that there is likely to be a predictive relationship between poly-victimization and mental health of street children. Methods: Through purposive sampling a sample of 77 street boys was collected from Lahore city, with the help of three government and private organizations working with street children. Sample included only boys within the age range of 9-13 years (M = 10.66, SD = 1.26) who have been residing on streets for more than one month. Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and Mental Health Inventory were used for assessment of poly-victimization and mental health respectively. Results: The results indicated that poly-victimization positively predicted the psychological distress and negatively predicted psychological wellbeing in street children. Conclusion: The most common type of victimization was conventional crime which negatively predicts mental health of street children. The results have important implications for the policy makers to develop improved services for this vulnerable group.
    Journal of Mental Health 09/2015; 24(5):1-7. DOI:10.3109/09638237.2015.1057330 · 1.01 Impact Factor
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