Article

The heritability of cluster A personality disorders assessed by both personal interview and questionnaire.

Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0126, USA.
Psychological Medicine (Impact Factor: 5.43). 06/2007; 37(5):655-65. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291706009755
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Personality disorders (PDs) as assessed by questionnaires and personal interviews are heritable. However, we know neither how much unreliability of measurement impacts on heritability estimates nor whether the genetic and environmental risk factors assessed by these two methods are the same. We wish to know whether the same set of PD vulnerability factors are assessed by these two methods.
A total of 3334 young adult twin pairs from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel (NIPHTP) completed a questionnaire containing 91 PD items. One to 6 years later, 1386 of these pairs were interviewed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV). Self-report items predicting interview results were selected by regression. Measurement models were fitted using Mx.
In the best-fit models, the latent liabilities to paranoid personality disorder (PPD), schizoid personality disorder (SPD) and schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) were all highly heritable with no evidence of shared environmental effects. For PPD and STPD, only unique environmental effects were specific to the interview measure whereas both environmental and genetic effects were found to be specific to the questionnaire assessment. For SPD, the best-fit model contained genetic and environmental effects specific to both forms of assessment.
The latent liabilities to the cluster A PDs are highly heritable but are assessed by current methods with only moderate reliability. The personal interviews assessed the genetic risk for the latent trait with excellent specificity for PPD and STPD and good specificity for SPD. However, for all three PDs, the questionnaires were less specific, also indexing an independent set of genetic risk factors.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
117 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is scant knowledge on the presentation of paranoid personality disorder in clinical psychiatric settings. In this study, the charts of 15 consecutive patients diagnosed with paranoid personality disorder were retrospectively analyzed. Information was gathered concerning descriptive behavioral and psychopathological characteristics including occurrence of delusional psychosis. With respect to ICD-10 research criteria, ‘excessive sensitivity’ and ‘self-reference’ were most consistently present. Conversely, ‘suspiciousness’ and ‘jealousy’ were only recorded in half of the individuals. Seven individuals had episodes of delusional psychosis and four others were for periods of time suspected of delusion development. Occurrence of delusions was associated with a prolonged psychiatric course. All individuals had positive depression ratings. Implications for conceptualization of paranoid personality disorder are discussed.
    Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.) 06/2014; 33(2):219-228. · 0.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is important clinically, as it is understudied, challenging to treat, often under-recognized or misdiagnosed, and associated with significant functional impairment. SPD also represents an intermediate schizophrenia-spectrum phenotype, and therefore, can provide a better understanding of the genetics, pathogenesis, and treatment of related psychotic illnesses. In this review we discuss recent findings of SPD related to epidemiology and functional impairment, heritability and genetics, working memory and cognitive impairments, social-affective disturbances, and neurobiology. Additionally, we examine the challenges associated with treating patients with SPD, as well as clinical recommendations. Finally, we address future directions and areas in need of further exploration.
    Current Psychiatry Reports 07/2014; 16(7):452. · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Personality disorders (PDs) reduce global functioning, are associated with high levels of work disability, and are thus also likely to influence long-term sick leave (LTSL). Previous research has indicated significant genetic influence on both DSM-IV PDs and LTSL. To what degree genes contributing to PDs also influence LTSL has not been investigated. The aims of the current study were to investigate which PDs were significantly associated with LTSL, to what extent the genetic contributions to these PDs account for the heritability of LTSL, and to explore the hypothesis of a causal association between PDs and LTSL. The sample consisted of 2,771 young, adult Norwegian twins, born 1967-1979. PDs were assessed using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV). The age range for the interview was 20-32. The data were subsequently linked to public records of LTSL (sick leave >16 days) up to 11 years later. The odds ratio for being in the highest LTSL category (>15% sick leave) when fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for any PD diagnosis was 2.6 (1.8-3.8, 95% CI). Dimensional representations of schizotypal, paranoid, and borderline PD were independently and significantly associated with LTSL. The heritability of LTSL was 0.50. Genetic factors shared with the PDs accounted for 20% of this. The association between PDs and LTSL was due to shared genetic and not environmental influences, and was mainly explained by one common genetic factor. The hypothesis of a causal association was not supported, indicating that the association is explained by overlapping genetic liability between PDs and LTSL.
    Twin Research and Human Genetics 01/2014; 17(01):1-9. · 1.92 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
36 Downloads
Available from
May 23, 2014