Protective effect of verapamil on multiple hepatotoxic factors-induced liver fibrosis in rats.
ABSTRACT The purpose of the present work was to investigate the effect of verapamil on liver fibrosis induced by multiple hepatotoxic factors in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into a normal control group, a liver fibrosis model control group, and verapamil groups with different dosages. Multiple hepatotoxic factors including carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), ethanol and high cholesterol were used to make the animal model of liver fibrosis. The parameters of serum l-alanine aminotransferase (ALT), liver malondialdehyde and hydroxyproline contents were measured. Samples of the liver obtained by biopsy were subjected to histological and immunohistochemical studies for the expressions of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)). Results showed that verapamil induced a dose-dependent decrease of serum ALT, liver malondialdehyde and hydroxyproline compared with liver fibrosis model control. Verapamil reduced hepatocyte degeneration and necrosis, and delayed the formation of liver fibrosis. The levels of expression of alpha-SMA and TGF-beta(1) in the hepatic tissue of three of the verapamil-treated groups were significantly less than those of the liver fibrosis model control group. The results showed that verapamil acts against the formation of liver fibrosis, the mechanism might be due to a protective effect for hepatocytes and through decreasing TGF-beta(1) to block the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and collagen gene expression.
- SourceAvailable from: Norio Horiguchi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress plays a critical role in liver fibrogenesis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulate hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), and ROS-mediated increases in calcium influx further increase ROS production. Azelnidipine is a calcium blocker that has been shown to have antioxidant effects in endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. Therefore, we evaluated the anti-fibrotic and antioxidative effects of azelnidipine on liver fibrosis. We used TGF-β1-activated LX-2 cells (a human HSC line) and mouse models of fibrosis induced by treatment with either carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4) ) or thioacetamide (TAA). Azelnidipine inhibited TGF-β1 and angiotensin II (Ang II)-activated α1(I) collagen mRNA expression in HSCs. Furthermore, TGF-β1- and Ang II-induced oxidative stress and TGF-β1-induced p38 and JNK phosphorylation were reduced in HSCs treated with azelnidipine. Azelnidipine significantly decreased inflammatory cell infiltration, pro-fibrotic gene expressions, HSC activation, lipid peroxidation, oxidative DNA damage and fibrosis in the livers of CCl(4) - or TAA-treated mice. Finally, azelnidipine prevented a decrease in the expression of some antioxidant enzymes and accelerated regression of liver fibrosis in CCl(4) -treated mice. Azelnidipine inhibited TGF-β1- and Ang II-induced HSC activation in vitro and attenuated CCl(4) - and TAA-induced liver fibrosis, and it accelerated regression of CCl(4) -induced liver fibrosis in mice. The anti-fibrotic mechanism of azelnidipine against CCl(4) -induced liver fibrosis in mice may have been due an increased level of antioxidant defence. As azelnidipine is widely used in clinical practice without serious adverse effects, it may provide an effective new strategy for anti-fibrotic therapy.British Journal of Pharmacology 07/2011; 165(4b):1173-87. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cytoglobin, generated using genetic engineering method, is a kind of recombinant human stellate cell activation-associated protein. We speculate that it could influence the development of hepatic fibrosis like Sellate cell activation-associated protein which was discovered by Kawada et al. Therefore, we investigated its anti-fibrosis effect on liver both in vivo and in vitro. During our research, we found that cytoglobin showed obvious effect compared with the control group on Thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in SD rats, including significantly decrease in aspartate aminotransferase, Hyaluronic acid, laminin and collagen I(Col I) levels in serum and hydroxyproline in livers, which are the important indices reflecting the degree of hepatic fibrosis. Meanwhile, the viability of rat hepatic stellate cell line T6 (HSC-T6) cells was inhibited by cytoglobin and the apoptosis induced by cytoglobin in HSC-T6 cells was detected by Annexin V/PI double staining. Activation of the caspase cascade including caspase-3 for the intrinsic pathways was demonstrated. The results also showed that the expression of Bcl-2 protein decreased whereas that of Bax protein increased, leading to an increase of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Our results demonstrated that cytoglobin exhibited anti-fibrosis activity on livers in vivo and in vitro, involving apoptosis induction.The Protein Journal 08/2011; 30(7):437-46. · 1.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human serum albumin (HSA) is widely used in clinical and cell culture applications. Conventional production of HSA from human blood is limited by the availability of blood donation and the high risk of viral transmission from donors. Here, we report the production of Oryza sativa recombinant HSA (OsrHSA) from transgenic rice seeds. The level of OsrHSA reached 10.58% of the total soluble protein of the rice grain. Large-scale production of OsrHSA generated protein with a purity >99% and a productivity rate of 2.75 g/kg brown rice. Physical and biochemical characterization of OsrHSA revealed it to be equivalent to plasma-derived HSA (pHSA). The efficiency of OsrHSA in promoting cell growth and treating liver cirrhosis in rats was similar to that of pHSA. Furthermore, OsrHSA displays similar in vitro and in vivo immunogenicity as pHSA. Our results suggest that a rice seed bioreactor produces cost-effective recombinant HSA that is safe and can help to satisfy an increasing worldwide demand for human serum albumin.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2011; 108(47):19078-83. · 9.81 Impact Factor