Constructing and disrupting listeners' models of auditory space.
ABSTRACT A major problem for an auditory system exposed to sound in a reverberant environment is to distinguish reflections from true sound sources. Previous research indicates that the process of recognizing reflections is malleable from moment to moment. Three experiments report how ongoing input can prevent or disrupt the fusion of the delayed sound with the direct sound, a necessary component of the precedence effect. The buildup of fusion can be disrupted by presenting stimuli in alternation that simulate different reflecting surfaces. If buildup of fusion is accomplished first and then followed by an aberrant configuration, breakdown of the precedence effect occurs but it depends on the duration of the new sound configuration. The Djelani and Blauert (2001) finding that a brief disruption has no effect on fusion was confirmed; however, it was found that a more lengthy disruption produces breakdown.
- SourceAvailable from: scielo.org.co[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The capacity to perceive if the sound that listening comes from the left or right, above or down, behind or ahead and what so close or far is the sonorous source is of capital importance both for animals and human beings. Systematic research about developmental aspects involved in this ability begins in the 80Â´s. The aim of this paper is to review the experimental research about the ability to localize direct and reflected sound in neonates and infants. The main explicative hypotheses about the developmental changes observed in auditory localization and the topics that still challenge experts are discussed.Revista latinoamericana de psicología 08/2009; 41(2):225-242. · 0.64 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Spatial perception in echoic environments is influenced by recent acoustic history. For instance, echo suppression becomes more effective or "builds up" with repeated exposure to echoes having a consistent acoustic relationship to a temporally leading sound. Four experiments were conducted to investigate how buildup is affected by prior exposure to unpaired lead-alone or lag-alone click trains. Unpaired trains preceded lead-lag click trains designed to evoke and assay buildup. Listeners reported how many sounds they heard from the echo hemifield during the lead-lag trains. Stimuli were presented in free field (experiments 1 and 4) or dichotically through earphones (experiments 2 and 3). In experiment 1, listeners reported more echoes following a lead-alone train compared to a period of silence. In contrast, listeners reported fewer echoes following a lag-alone train; similar results were observed with earphones. Interestingly, the effects of lag-alone click trains on buildup were qualitatively different when compared to a no-conditioner trial type in experiment 4. Finally, experiment 3 demonstrated that the effects of preceding click trains on buildup cannot be explained by a change in counting strategy or perceived click salience. Together, these findings demonstrate that echo suppression is affected by prior exposure to unpaired stimuli.The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 08/2014; 136(2):803. · 1.65 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although many studies have examined the precedence effect (PE), few have tested whether it shows a buildup and breakdown in nonhuman animals comparable to that seen in humans. These processes are thought to reflect the ability of the auditory system to adjust to a listener's acoustic environment, and their mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this study, ferrets were trained on a two-alternative forced-choice task to discriminate the azimuthal direction of brief sounds. In one experiment, pairs of noise bursts were presented from two loudspeakers at different interstimulus delays (ISDs). Results showed that localization performance changed as a function of ISD in a manner consistent with the PE being operative. A second experiment investigated buildup and breakdown of the PE by measuring the ability of ferrets to discriminate the direction of a click pair following presentation of a conditioning train. Human listeners were also tested using this paradigm. In both species, performance was better when the test clicks and conditioning train had the same ISD but deteriorated following a switch in the direction of the leading and lagging sounds between the conditioning train and test clicks. These results suggest that ferrets, like humans, experience a buildup and breakdown of the PE.The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 03/2014; 135(3):1406. · 1.65 Impact Factor