High Prevalence of Torque teno (TT) virus in classical Kaposi's sarcoma.
ABSTRACT Human herpes virus 8 infection is the primary and necessary factor in the development of Kaposi's sarcoma, but is not sufficient per se to trigger the onset of the disease. In order to search for virological cofactors associated with the occurrence of the disease, we investigated the prevalence of active infection by two newly discovered viruses, hepatitis G virus and TT virus, among patients with classical Kaposi's sarcoma. Serum of 24 patients with Mediterranean Kaposi's sarcoma was investigated using polymerase chain reaction and compared with that of 68 healthy subjects. Cutaneous samples from patients with Kaposi's sarcoma and healthy subjects were investigated for TT virus DNA. No patient had serum markers for hepatitis G virus. TT virus DNA was present in the serum of 21/24 (87.5%) patients and 32/68 (47%) controls (p=0.002). TT virus DNA was present in the lesional skin of 5/18 patients with Kaposi's sarcoma (27.7%), but not in the skin of controls. TT virus might play a role as a cofactor in the clinical emergence of Kaposi's sarcoma in patients infected with Human herpes virus 8, perhaps by immunosuppressive effects or by a common transmission pathway for these two viruses.
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ABSTRACT: Current clinical studies on human annelloviruses infections are directed towards finding an associated disease. In this review we have emphasized the many similarities between human anellovirus and avian circoviruses and the cell and tissue types infected by these pathogens. We have done this in order to explore whether knowledge acquired from natural and experimental avian infections could reflect and be extrapolated to the less well-characterized human annellovirus infections. The knowledge gained from the avian system may provide suggestions for decoding the enigmatic human anellovirus infections, and finding the specific disease or diseases caused by these human anellovirus infections. Each additional parallelism between chicken anemia virus (CAV) and Torque teno virus (TTV) further strengthens this premise. As we have seen information from human infections can also be used to better understand avian infections as well. Increased attention must be focused on the "hidden" or unrecognized, seemingly asymptomatic effects of circovirus and anellovirus infections. Understanding the facilitating effect of these infections on disease progression caused by other pathogens may help to explain differences in outcome of complicated poultry and human diseases. The final course of a pathogenic infection is determined by variations in the state of health of the host before, during and after contact with a pathogen, in addition to the phenotype of the pathogen and host. The health burden of circoviridae and anellovirus infections may be underestimated, due to lack of awareness of the need to search past the predominant clinical effect of identified pathogens and look for modulation of cellular-based immunity caused by co-infecting circoviruses, and by analogy, human anneloviruses.Virus Research 10/2008; 137(1):1-15. DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2008.06.014 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) remains a challenge. Its classic or Mediterranean form tends to be benign. In transplant recipients it may be less so. As part of the AIDS pandemic, of which it was an original defining component, it may be life-threatening. It is due to human herpesvirus-8, which is necessary but not sufficient to produce the disease. KS has a low prevalence in the general population of the United States and United Kingdom, with an intermediate rate in Italy and Greece, and a high one in parts of Africa. In Italy, hot spots include its southern regions, the Po River Valley, and Sardinia, possibly related to a high density of blood-sucking insects. An important challenge is to treat KS patients without immunocompromising them. The potential of effective anti-herpes virus therapy and the use of sirolimus in transplantation recipients have added new opportunities for KS prevention. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: At the conclusion of this learning activity, participants should be able to provide the most recent information about Kaposi sarcoma in the context in which it occurs. Its classic or Mediterranean form, its pattern in transplant recipients and others iatrogenically immunosuppressed, and its occurrence as a potentially life-threatening part of the AIDS pandemic will be stressed. Its etiology and transmission will be discussed in detail to facilitate understanding of Kaposi sarcoma and of human herpesvirus-8 infection in the general population of the United States and United Kingdom, in Italy and Greece, and in certain parts of Africa. Its therapy, including the concept of doing it without immunocompromising the patient, will be stressed. New opportunities for Kaposi sarcoma prevention will also be discussed.Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 08/2008; 59(2):179-206; quiz 207-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jaad.2008.05.001 · 5.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human torque teno viruses (TTVs) are new, emerging infectious agents, recently assigned to the family Anelloviridae. The first representative of the genus, torque teno virus (TTV), was discovered in 1997, followed by torque teno mini virus (TTMV) in 2000, and torque teno midi virus (TTMDV) in 2007. These viruses are characterized by an extremely high prevalence, with relatively uniform distribution worldwide and a high level of genomic heterogeneity, as well as an apparent pan-tropism at the host level. Although these viruses have a very high prevalence in the general population across the globe, neither their interaction with their hosts nor their direct involvement in the etiology of specific diseases are fully understood. Since their discovery, human anelloviruses, and especially TTV, have been suggested to be associated with various diseases, such as hepatitis, respiratory diseases, cancer, hematological and autoimmune disorders, with few arguments for their direct involvement. Recent studies have started to reveal interactions between TTVs and the host's immune system, leading to new hypotheses for potential pathological mechanisms of these viruses. In this review article, we discuss the most important aspects and current status of human TTVs in order to guide future studies.Archives of Virology 02/2015; 160(4). DOI:10.1007/s00705-015-2363-9 · 2.28 Impact Factor