Differential roles of Rap1 and Rap2 small GTPases in neurite retraction and synapse elimination in hippocampal spiny neurons
ABSTRACT The Rap family of small GTPases is implicated in the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity, particularly synaptic depression. Here we studied the role of Rap in neuronal morphogenesis and synaptic transmission in cultured neurons. Constitutively active Rap2 expressed in hippocampal pyramidal neurons caused decreased length and complexity of both axonal and dendritic branches. In addition, Rap2 caused loss of dendritic spines and spiny synapses, and an increase in filopodia-like protrusions and shaft synapses. These Rap2 morphological effects were absent in aspiny interneurons. In contrast, constitutively active Rap1 had no significant effect on axon or dendrite morphology. Dominant-negative Rap mutants increased dendrite length, indicating that endogenous Rap restrains dendritic outgrowth. The amplitude and frequency of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA)-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) decreased in hippocampal neurons transfected with active Rap1 or Rap2, associated with reduced surface and total levels of AMPA receptor subunit GluR2. Finally, increasing synaptic activity with GABA(A) receptor antagonists counteracted Rap2's inhibitory effect on dendrite growth, and masked the effects of Rap1 and Rap2 on AMPA-mediated mEPSCs. Rap1 and Rap2 thus have overlapping but distinct actions that potentially link the inhibition of synaptic transmission with the retraction of axons and dendrites.
SourceAvailable from: Sonja Hess[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: SynGAP is a neuron-specific Ras and Rap GTPase-activating protein (GAP) found in high concentration in the postsynaptic density (PSD) fraction from mammalian forebrain. We have previously shown that, in situ in the PSD fraction or in recombinant form in Sf9 cell membranes, synGAP is phosphorylated by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), another prominent component of the PSD. Here we show that recombinant synGAP (r-synGAP), lacking 102 residues at the N-terminus, can be purified in soluble form and is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) as well as by CaMKII. Phos-phorylation of r-synGAP by CaMKII increases its HRas GAP activity by 25% and its Rap1 GAP activity by 76%. Conversely, phosphorylation by CDK5 increases r-synGAPs HRas GAP activity by 98% and its Rap1 GAP activity by 20%. Thus, phosphorylation by both kinases increases synGAP activity, but CaMKII shifts the relative GAP activity toward inactivation of Rap1; whereas CDK5 shifts the relative activity toward inactivation of HRas. GAP activity toward Rap2 is not altered by phosphorylation by either kinase. CDK5 phosphorylates synGAP primarily at two sites, S773 and S802. Phosphorylation at S773 inhibits r-synGAP activity, whereas phosphorylation at S802 increases it. However, the net effect of concurrent phosphorylation of both sites, S773 and S802, is an increase in GAP activity. SynGAP is phosphorylated at S773 and S802 in the PSD fraction, and its phosphorylation by CDK5 and CaMKII is differentially regulated by activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors in cultured neurons. Copyright © 2014, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2015; 290(8):4908-4927. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.614420 · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Huntington's disease (HD) represents an important model for neurodegenerative disorders and proteinopathies. It is mainly caused by cytotoxicity of the mutant huntingtin protein (Htt) with an expanded polyQ stretch. While Htt is ubiquitously expressed, HD is characterized by selective neurodegeneration of the striatum. Here we report a striatal-enriched orphan G protein-coupled receptor(GPCR) Gpr52 as a stabilizer of Htt in vitro and in vivo. Gpr52 modulates Htt via cAMP-dependent but PKA independent mechanisms. Gpr52 is located within an intron of Rabgap1l, which exhibits epistatic effects on Gpr52-mediated modulation of Htt levels by inhibiting its substrate Rab39B, which co-localizes with Htt and translocates Htt to the endoplasmic reticulum. Finally, reducing Gpr52 suppresses HD phenotypes in both patient iPS-derived neurons and in vivo Drosophila HD models. Thus, our discovery reveals modulation of Htt levels by a striatal-enriched GPCR via its GPCR function, providing insights into the selective neurodegeneration and potential treatment strategies.eLife Sciences 03/2015; 4. DOI:10.7554/eLife.05449 · 8.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The neurobiology of fear is a large cellular configuration that implies the group activity of a large number of neurons. These connections suffer changes along the life cycle in a cellular activity-dependant process. This changes the effectiveness of the synaptic communication, facilitating the unchaining process of fear. Hence, the objective of this review is to describe the physiological process that cause those changes in fear, which begin with the activation of ionics and metabotropics receptors, and ending with the genomic stimulation and protein synthesis. Additionally, this paper explains the relation of fear while memories associated with it are established, as a factor that contributes to a higher frequency of discharging and cellular depolarization that favors long term changes due to intense neural excitation. In conclusion, fear can be neurobiologically strengthened after aversive stimulations, by the formation of associations between stimuli, as well as between them and the context, encouraging the organism to have a more efficient reactivity regarding a later meeting with the same threat or circumstance.06/2010; 9(1):47-63.