Clear cell sarcoma of tendons and aponeuroses: A review

Department of Pathology, University of Missouri at Kansas City School of Medicine/Truman Medical Center, 2301 Holmes St, Kansas City, MO 64108-2677, USA.
Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine (Impact Factor: 2.88). 02/2007; 131(1):152-6. DOI: 10.1043/1543-2165(2007)131[152:CCSOTA]2.0.CO;2
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ABSTRACT Clear cell sarcoma of tendons and aponeuroses, also referred to as malignant melanoma of soft parts, is a rare malignancy derived from neural crest cells. It usually presents in the distal lower extremities of young adults, frequently attached to tendons or aponeuroses. It behaves like a high-grade soft tissue sarcoma and is associated with poor overall survival. Magnetic resonance imaging studies of the lesion reveal T1 hypointensity, T2 hyperintensity, and gadolinium uptake. Grossly, the tumor is usually circumscribed with a histologic pattern of uniform polygonal to fusiform cells with clear to pale eosinophilic cytoplasm divided into variably sized clusters by fibrous septa. Immunohistochemical studies in most cases show that the neoplastic cells are positive with HMB-45 and react with antibody against S100 protein. Most cases show a reciprocal cytogenetic translocation t(12;22)(q13;q12) that creates a unique chimeric fusion EWSR1/ATF1 gene transcript. Metastasis occurs mainly to regional lymph nodes and lungs. Poor prognostic indicators include a tumor size equal to or more than 5 cm, presence of metastasis, and necrosis. The mainstay of treatment is wide excision of the tumor. The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy may become an important procedure in detecting occult regional metastasis and guiding the extent of surgery. The beneficial effects of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy have not been fully evaluated. This article provides a short overview of the current knowledge of clear cell sarcoma of tendons and aponeuroses.

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    • "This experience is well described in a review of MRI utility in sarcomas by Varma et al. [23]. There are several papers that describe the importance of T2-weighted MRI in clinical sarcoma diagnosis and treatment MR as evidenced by the following 21 publications, many of which performed a radiological/pathological correlation and specifically describe the tumor boundaries and rims [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [8-22]. The boundary changes are likely caused by edema and other processes and are noted in the papers below. "
    12/2011; 1(1). DOI:10.5430/jbgc.v1n1p1
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    ABSTRACT: Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) of soft tissue is a rare sarcoma with morphologic similarities to malignant melanoma but a distinct genetic background including a chromosomal translocation, t(12;22)(q13;q12), or a resultant EWSR1-ATF1 fusion gene. In addition, the tumors occurring in the gastrointestinal tract may have a variant fusion gene EWSR1-CREB1. This study analyzed the clinicopathologic and molecular genetic features of 33 CCSs of soft tissue. The patients' ages ranged from 13 to 73 years (median, 30 y), and there was a male predominance (20 males, 13 females). The tumors were located in the deep soft tissues of the extremities (N=25) or in the trunk or limb girdles (N=8). The median tumor size was 4 cm (range, 1 to 15 cm). The tumor cells were either spindle or epithelioid, and they were arranged predominantly in a short fascicular (N=19) or a solid sheetlike growth pattern (N=14). Minor histologic variations included the existence of rhabdoid cells (N=8), bizarre pleomorphic cells (N=6), alveolar structures due to loss of cellular cohesion (N=3), and a seminomalike pattern (N=2). Tumor necrosis was evident in 14 tumors, and the mitotic activity ranged from 0 to 43 mitotic figures (MF)/10 high-power fields (HPF) (mean: 4 MF/10 HPF). Immunohistochemically, the tumors were consistently positive for S-100 protein (33/33) and variably or focally for HMB45 (32/33), microphthalmia transcription factor (26/32), Melan A (23/32), CD57 (25/33), bcl-2 (30/32), synaptophysin (14/32), CD56 (7/32), epithelial membrane antigen (12/33), cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) (1/32), CD34 (3/32), c-erbB-2 (10/32), c-kit (5/32), and c-met (5/32). alpha-Smooth muscle actin, desmin, and cytokeratin (CAM5.2) were negative. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using RNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues demonstrated transcripts of the EWSR1-ATF1 (31/33) or EWSR1-CREB1 fusion gene (2/33). In 26 cases with available clinical information, local recurrences and metastases developed in 2 and 15 patients, respectively. Ten patients were dead of the disease, and the overall survival rate was 63% at 5 years. However, no clinicopathologic or molecular variables associated with the patients' prognosis were identified. This study confirms that CCS is an aggressive soft tissue tumor with a melanocytic phenotype and wider morphologic variations than had been generally considered. In cases with unusual histologic findings, molecular detection of the EWSR1-ATF1/CREB1 fusion genes provides critical information regarding the diagnosis of the tumor.
    American Journal of Surgical Pathology 04/2008; 32(3):452-60. DOI:10.1097/PAS.0b013e31814b18fb · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 7-year-old girl presented with pain and progressive swelling on the left plantar surface. Biopsy of a 2.5 cm mass showed nests of large round to oval neoplastic cells with abundant amphophilic to clear cytoplasm, prominent nucleoli and high mitotic activity. Occasional cells showed spindled morphology. Infrequent melanin pigment was present. Melanocytic markers (HMB45, S-100) were diffusely positive. A diagnosis of clear cell sarcoma of soft tissue (CCSS) was made, and the mass was re-excised with negative margins. 28 months later, a 1.0 cm pulmonary nodule was identified and wedge excision showed metastatic CCSS. Cytogenetics showed a complex karyotype (unbalanced translocation der(12;14)(q10;q10), additional chromosome 22 material of unknown origin). Although the CCSS translocation t(12;22)(q13;q12) was not identified, EWSR1 gene rearrangement was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed an EWS-ATF1 fusion transcript, confirmed by direct sequencing. CCSS requires differentiation from malignant melanoma, because of overlapping clinical presentations, sites of involvement, histomorphology, immunocytochemical profiles and ultrastructure. In many circumstances, definitive diagnosis is only possible with confirmation of the CCSS-defining translocation.
    Journal of Cutaneous Pathology 05/2008; 35(4):411-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0560.2007.00821.x · 1.56 Impact Factor
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