High-fidelity medical simulation as an assessment tool for pediatric residents' airway management skills.
ABSTRACT To evaluate high-fidelity medical simulation as an assessment tool for pediatric residents' ability to manage an acute airway.
We performed a prospective, observational study in which 16 pediatric residents were consented and then brought to the medical simulation center. They were placed in 2 different computer-driven scenarios and asked to manage the cases. The first scenario was a 3-month-old infant with bronchiolitis and severe respiratory distress and was programmed to develop respiratory failure. The second case was a 16-year-old adolescent with alcohol intoxication and respiratory depression and was programmed for emesis and aspiration. Both cases included a nurse, parent, and intern. We recorded performance of predetermined critical actions and any harmful actions.
There were 47 attempts at intubation with 27 successes (56%). Appropriate preoxygenation was performed in 15 (47%) of 32 cases. Appropriate rapid sequence induction was administered in 21 (66%) of 32 cases. Cricoid pressure was applied in 20 (63%) of 32 cases. End-tidal carbon dioxide detector was used in 11 (34%) of 32 cases. A nasogastric tube was placed in 14 (44%) of 32 cases. Harmful actions included rapid sequence induction administered before intubation equipment setup, bag-valve mask not connected to oxygen, inappropriate endotracheal tube size, pulling cuffed endotracheal tube out while inflated, and placing the laryngoscope blade on backwards.
Our data identified many areas of concern with resident skills in managing an airway. This project suggests that high-fidelity medical simulation can assess a resident's ability to manage an airway as well as a program's effectiveness in teaching the skills necessary to manage an acute pediatric airway.
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ABSTRACT: Objective:The Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) has transitioned to a simulation-based format. We hypothesized that immersive simulation differentially impacts similar trainee populations' resuscitation knowledge, procedural skill and teamwork behavior.Study Design:Residents from NICU and non-NICU programs were randomized to either control or a booster simulation 7 to 10 months after NRP. Procedural skill and teamwork behavior instruments were validated. Individual resident's resuscitation performance was assessed at 15 to 18 months. Three reviewers rated videos.Result:Fifty residents were assessed. Inter-rater reliability was good for procedural skills (0.78) and team behavior (0.74) instruments. The intervention group demonstrated better procedural skills (71.6 versus 64.4) and teamwork behaviors (18.8 versus 16.2). The NICU program demonstrated better teamwork behaviors (18.6 versus 15.5) compared with non-NICU program.Conclusion:A simulation-enhanced booster session 9 months after NRP differentiates procedural skill and teamwork behavior at 15 months. Deliberate practice with simulation enhances teamwork behaviors additively with residents' clinical resuscitation exposure.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 24 April 2014; doi:10.1038/jp.2014.72.Journal of perinatology: official journal of the California Perinatal Association 04/2014; · 1.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pediatrics has embraced technology-enhanced simulation (TES) as an educational modality, but its effectiveness for pediatric education remains unclear. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics and evaluate the effectiveness of TES for pediatric education. This review adhered to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) standards. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, ERIC, Web of Science, Scopus, key journals, and previous review bibliographies through May 2011 and an updated Medline search through October 2013 were conducted. Original research articles in any language evaluating the use of TES for educating health care providers at any stage, where the content solely focuses on patients 18 years or younger, were selected. Reviewers working in duplicate abstracted information on learners, clinical topic, instructional design, study quality, and outcomes. We coded skills (simulated setting) separately for time and nontime measures and similarly classified patient care behaviors and patient effects. We identified 57 studies (3666 learners) using TES to teach pediatrics. Effect sizes (ESs) were pooled by using a random-effects model. Among studies comparing TES with no intervention, pooled ESs were large for outcomes of knowledge, nontime skills (eg, performance in simulated setting), behaviors with patients, and time to task completion (ES = 0.80-1.91). Studies comparing the use of high versus low physical realism simulators showed small to moderate effects favoring high physical realism (ES = 0.31-0.70). TES for pediatric education is associated with large ESs in comparison with no intervention. Future research should include comparative studies that identify optimal instructional methods and incorporate pediatric-specific issues into educational interventions.PEDIATRICS 04/2014; · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pediatrics residents are expected to demonstrate preparedness for neonatal resuscitation, yet research has shown gaps in residents' readiness to perform this skill. To evaluate procedural skills and team performance of pediatrics residents during neonatal resuscitation (NR) using a high-fidelity mannequin, and to assess residents' confidence in their NR skills before and after training. Two teams of residents (all had completed NR program training) participated in 2 separate, 90-minute sessions (2 to 3 weeks apart) in an off-site delivery room during their neonatal intensive care rotation. Residents' confidence in assisting and leading NR was surveyed before each session. Teams participated in a scenario (adapted from the NR program), which required 5 skills (positive pressure ventilation, chest compressions, endotracheal intubation, umbilical vein catheterization, and epinephrine administration). Video recording was used for debriefing and scoring. Skills were scored for technique and timeliness, and team behaviors were scored for communication, management, and leadership. Twenty-six residents (11 teams) completed 2 paired sessions. Self-confidence scores increased between the 2 sessions but were not correlated with performance. Gaps in procedural skill performance were observed, and timeliness for most skills did not meet expectations. Significant improvement in team communication was noted. Important gaps in procedural skill performance, particularly timeliness, were detected by NR simulation training; residents' improvements in self-confidence did not reflect gains in actual performance. Their relative unpreparedness for NR (despite prior certification) highlights the need for deliberate practice and specific team training before and during neonatal intensive care delivery room rotations.Journal of graduate medical education. 09/2013; 5(3):399-404.