Survival of persons with and without HIV infection in Denmark, 1995-2005.
ABSTRACT The expected survival of HIV-infected patients is of major public health interest.
To estimate survival time and age-specific mortality rates of an HIV-infected population compared with that of the general population.
Population-based cohort study.
All HIV-infected persons receiving care in Denmark from 1995 to 2005.
Each member of the nationwide Danish HIV Cohort Study was matched with as many as 99 persons from the general population according to sex, date of birth, and municipality of residence.
The authors computed Kaplan-Meier life tables with age as the time scale to estimate survival from age 25 years. Patients with HIV infection and corresponding persons from the general population were observed from the date of the patient's HIV diagnosis until death, emigration, or 1 May 2005.
3990 HIV-infected patients and 379,872 persons from the general population were included in the study, yielding 22,744 (median, 5.8 y/person) and 2,689,287 (median, 8.4 years/person) person-years of observation. Three percent of participants were lost to follow-up. From age 25 years, the median survival was 19.9 years (95% CI, 18.5 to 21.3) among patients with HIV infection and 51.1 years (CI, 50.9 to 51.5) among the general population. For HIV-infected patients, survival increased to 32.5 years (CI, 29.4 to 34.7) during the 2000 to 2005 period. In the subgroup that excluded persons with known hepatitis C coinfection (16%), median survival was 38.9 years (CI, 35.4 to 40.1) during this same period. The relative mortality rates for patients with HIV infection compared with those for the general population decreased with increasing age, whereas the excess mortality rate increased with increasing age.
The observed mortality rates are assumed to apply beyond the current maximum observation time of 10 years.
The estimated median survival is more than 35 years for a young person diagnosed with HIV infection in the late highly active antiretroviral therapy era. However, an ongoing effort is still needed to further reduce mortality rates for these persons compared with the general population.
SourceAvailable from: Xin Quan Tan[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) allows for appropriately timed interventions with improved outcomes, but HIV screening among asymptomatic persons and the general population in Singapore remains low. In 2008, Singapore's Ministry of Health implemented HIV voluntary opt-out screening (VOS) for hospitalised adults. We evaluated the outcome of VOS and surveyed reasons for its low uptake in our institution. We assessed the outcomes of the VOS programme from January 2010 to December 2013 at National University Hospital, a 1081-bed tertiary hospital in Singapore. We also examined reasons for opting-in and opting-out using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire in a representative sample in January 2013. 107,523 patients fulfilled VOS criteria and were offered HIV screening, of which 5215 (4.9%) agreed to testing. 4850 (93.1%) of those who opted-in had an HIV test done. Three (0.06%) tested positive for HIV. 238 patients (14.2%) were surveyed regarding reasons for opting-in or out of VOS. 21 (8.8%) had opted-in. Patients who opted-in were likely to be younger, more educated and reported having more regular sexual partners. Type of housing, number of casual sexual partners, sexual orientation, intravenous drug use, condom use and previous sexually transmitted infection were not associated with deciding to opt-in/out. Patients' most common reasons for opting-out were: belief that they were at low risk (50.2%), belief that they were too old (26.8%), cost (6.9%) and aversion to venepuncture (6.5%). The most common reason for opting-in was desire to know their HIV status (47.6%). The success of an HIV-VOS program is largely determined by test uptake. Our study showed that the majority of eligible VOS patients opted-out of HIV screening. Given the considerable cost and low yield of this programme, more needs to be done to better equip patients in self-risk assessment and opting in to testing.PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1):e0116987. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116987 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease and non-AIDS malignancies have become major causes of death among HIV-infected individuals. The relative impact of lifestyle and HIV-related factors are debated. We estimated associations of smoking with mortality more than 1 year after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among HIV-infected individuals enrolled in European and North American cohorts. IDUs were excluded. Causes of death were assigned using standardized procedures. We used abridged life tables to estimate life expectancies. Life-years lost to HIV were estimated by comparison with the French background population. Among 17 995 HIV-infected individuals followed for 79 760 person-years, the proportion of smokers was 60%. The mortality rate ratio (MRR) comparing smokers with nonsmokers was 1.94 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.56-2.41]. The MRRs comparing current and previous smokers with never smokers were 1.70 (95% CI 1.23-2.34) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.64-1.34), respectively. Smokers had substantially higher mortality from cardiovascular disease, non-AIDS malignancies than nonsmokers [MRR 6.28 (95% CI 2.19-18.0) and 2.67 (95% CI 1.60-4.46), respectively]. Among 35-year-old HIV-infected men, the loss of life-years associated with smoking and HIV was 7.9 (95% CI 7.1-8.7) and 5.9 (95% CI 4.9-6.9), respectively. The life expectancy of virally suppressed, never-smokers was 43.5 years (95% CI 41.7-45.3), compared with 44.4 years among 35-year-old men in the background population. Excess MRRs/1000 person-years associated with smoking increased from 0.6 (95% CI -1.3 to 2.6) at age 35 to 43.6 (95% CI 37.9-49.3) at age at least 65 years. Well treated HIV-infected individuals may lose more life years through smoking than through HIV. Excess mortality associated with smoking increases markedly with age. Therefore, increases in smoking-related mortality can be expected as the treated HIV-infected population ages. Interventions for smoking cessation should be prioritized.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.AIDS (London, England) 11/2014; 29(2). DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000540 · 6.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: With the widespread use of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), individuals infected with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) are increasingly experiencing morbidity and mortality from respiratory disorders. However, the prevalence or the risk factors associated with emphysema and bronchiolitis are largely unknown.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e109027. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109027 · 3.53 Impact Factor