Interaction between human cathepsins K, L, and S and elastins: mechanism of elastinolysis and inhibition by macromolecular inhibitors.
ABSTRACT Proteolytic degradation of elastic fibers is associated with a broad spectrum of pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis and pulmonary emphysema. We have studied the interaction between elastins and human cysteine cathepsins K, L, and S, which are known to participate in elastinolytic activity in vivo. The enzymes showed distinctive preferences in degrading elastins from bovine neck ligament, aorta, and lung. Different susceptibility of these elastins to proteolysis was attributed to morphological differences observed by scanning electron microscopy. Kinetics of cathepsin binding to the insoluble substrate showed that the process occurs in two steps. The enzyme is initially adsorbed on the elastin surface in a nonproductive manner and then rearranges to form a catalytically competent complex. In contrast, soluble elastin is bound directly in a catalytically productive manner. Studies of enzyme partitioning between the phases showed that cathepsin K favors adsorption on elastin; cathepsin L prefers the aqueous environment, and cathepsin S is equally distributed among both phases. Our results suggest that elastinolysis by cysteine cathepsins proceeds in cycles of enzyme adsorption, binding of a susceptible peptide moiety, hydrolysis, and desorption. Alternatively, the enzyme may also form a new catalytic complex without prior desorption and re-adsorption. In both cases the active center of the enzymes remains at least partly accessible to inhibitors. Elastinolytic activity was readily abolished by cystatins, indicating that, unlike enzymes such as leukocyte elastase, pathological elastinolytic cysteine cathepsins might represent less problematic drug targets. In contrast, thyropins were relatively inefficient in preventing elastinolysis by cysteine cathepsins.
Article: Role for cysteine protease cathepsins in heart disease: focus on biology and mechanisms with clinical implication.Circulation 03/2012; 125(12):1551-62. · 14.74 Impact Factor
Article: Multiplex zymography captures stage-specific activity profiles of cathepsins K, L, and S in human breast, lung, and cervical cancer.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cathepsins K, L, and S are cysteine proteases upregulated in cancer and proteolyze extracellular matrix to facilitate metastasis, but difficulty distinguishing specific cathepsin activity in complex tissue extracts confounds scientific studies and employing them for use in clinical diagnoses. Here, we have developed multiplex cathepsin zymography to profile cathepsins K, L, and S activity in 10 μg human breast, lung, and cervical tumors by exploiting unique electrophoretic mobility and renaturation properties. Frozen breast, lung, and cervix cancer tissue lysates and normal organ tissue lysates from the same human patients were obtained (28 breast tissues, 23 lung tissues, and 23 cervix tissues), minced and homogenized prior to loading for cathepsin gelatin zymography to determine enzymatic activity. Cleared bands of cathepsin activity were identified and validated in tumor extracts and detected organ- and stage-specific differences in activity. Cathepsin K was unique compared to cathepsins L and S. It was significantly higher for all cancers even at the earliest stage tested (stage I for lung and cervix (n = 6, p < .05), and stage II for breast; n = 6, p < .0001). Interestingly, cervical and breast tumor cathepsin activity was highest at the earliest stage we tested, stages I and II, respectively, and then were significantly lower at the latest stages tested (III and IV, respectively) (n = 6, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05), but lung cathepsin activity increased from one stage to the next (n = 6, p < .05). Using cathepsin K as a diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer detected with multiplex zymography, yielded 100% sensitivity and specificity for 20 breast tissue samples tested (10 normal; 10 tumor) in part due to the consistent absence of cathepsin K in normal breast tissue across all patients. To summarize, this sensitive assay provides quantitative outputs of cathepsins K, L, and S activities from mere micrograms of tissue and has potential use as a supplement to histological methods of clinical diagnoses of biopsied human tissue.Journal of Translational Medicine 01/2011; 9:109. · 3.41 Impact Factor
Article: Cysteine protease cathepsins in atherosclerosis-based vascular disease and its complications.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis-based vascular disease is an inflammatory disease characterized by extensive remodeling of the extracellular matrix architecture of the arterial wall. Although matrix metalloproteinases and serine proteases participate in these pathological events, the discovery of cysteine protease cathepsins, such as cathepsins K, S, L, and B, and cystatin C, and their tissue distribution has suggested that at least some of them participate in cardiovascular disease. Studies on vascular cells have shown that atherosclerosis-associated inflammatory cytokines augment cysteinyl cathepsin expression and activity. Novel insight into cathepsin functions has been made possible by the generation and in-depth analysis of knockout and transgenic mice. These studies have provided direct evidence implicating cathepsins in atherosclerosis-based vascular disease through the activation, liberation, and modification of angiogenic growth factors, cytokines, and proteases associated with lipid metabolism, cell events (migration, invasion, proliferation, and apoptosis), angiogenesis, and matrix protein remodeling. Furthermore, evaluation of the feasibility of cathepsins as a diagnostic tool has revealed that the serum cathepsins S and L and the endogenous inhibitor cystatin C hold promise as biomarkers of coronary artery disease and aneurysm formation. The goal of this review is to summarize the available information regarding the mechanistic contributions of cathepsins in atherosclerosis-based vascular disease.Hypertension 12/2011; 58(6):978-86. · 6.21 Impact Factor