Modulation of aflatoxin toxicity and biomarkers by lycopene in F344 rats
ABSTRACT Modulation by lycopene of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-induced toxic effects, metabolism, and metabolic activations was studied in young F344 rats. Animals were pretreated orally with either corn oil (control group) or lycopene [100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), intervention group] 5 days/week for 2 weeks. Control animals were then treated daily with AFB(1) (250 microg/kg b.w) alone. Intervention animals were administered lycopene (100 mg/kg b.w.) at 1 h following a daily treatment with AFB(1) (250 mug/kg b.w.). Pretreatment and intervention with lycopene significantly reduced the toxic effect caused by AFB(1) and greatly modulated AFB(1) metabolism and metabolic activation. Urinary excretion of AFB(1) phase 1 metabolites, AFM(1), AFQ(1), and AFP(1), was significantly decreased in lycopene-treated animals. Formation of serum AFB(1)-albumin adducts was also significantly reduced. The rate of reduction was from approximately 30% on day 1 (p<0.05) to 67.7% on day 15 (p<0.001). Lycopene intervention also significantly reduced formation of AFB(1)-DNA adducts in liver compared to control animals, with the highest reduction (52.7%) occurring on day 3 (p<0.05). Levels of AFB(1)-N(7)-guanine excreted in urine were also significantly decreased. Urinary excretion of the phase 2 detoxification metabolite, AFB(1)-mecapturic acid, was significantly increased in lycopene-intervened animals. AFB(1)-induced urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was also reduced to 50% on day 7 after lycopene intervention. Collectively, these results suggest that inhibition of phase 1 metabolism and metabolic activation, as well as induction of phase 2 detoxification enzyme activity are the potential mechanisms for the chemopreventive effects of lycopene.
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- "Lycopene and silymarin as recently most popular antioxidant compounds were tested at 100 mg/kg whether they have any effect on hepatic functions and oxidative/ antioxidative status. Although the bioavailability of lycopene was very low (1–3% absorbed) in animals, it was found to be concentrated in various body tissues, such as the liver, adrenals, and adipose tissue . Lycopene molecule has been shown  to be absorbed with having similar tissue distribution in rats and humans, therefore rats were chosen as an appropriate animal model for assessing the potential effects of lycopene in humans. "
ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate effects of lycopene and silymarin on antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and possible liver toxicity in rats. Methods: 15 female Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: control group (Group I) received corn oil while Groups II and III were treated with 100 mg/kg oral dose of lycopene and silymarin for 7 days, respectively. The antioxidant enzyme activities of liver (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and malondialdehyde level were measured. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cholesterol and urea levels were also analyzed. Besides, histopathological evaluations were performed in liver. Results: Silymarin treatment resulted in significant decreases in catalase and cholesterol and increase in superoxide dismutase activities compared to control, while lycopene caused significant decrease in urea levels. Both of the antioxidants caused an increase in liver function enzymes AST and ALT compared to the control group. In lycopene treated group, ALP levels were also increased in comparison with control. There were significant differences in cholesterol, AST and ALP levels between silymarin and lycopene treatment groups. In histopathological examinations minimal changes were observed in liver tissues. Conclusion: Lycopene and silymarin treatment may cause alterations in liver functions due to the dose and/or duration. Therefore, both of the lycopene and silymarin need to be investigated in detail for their possible beneficial and harmful effects.Turkish Journal of Biochemistry 01/2014; 39(3):344-350. DOI:10.5505/tjb.2014.17136
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ABSTRACT: An experimental method for quantifying disorder within the anulus fibrosus is described based on polarization-modulated second harmonic generation imaging (PM-SHG-I). This method is demonstrated by imaging the anular lamellar architecture of a mouse model of compressive loading. Results were consistent with those obtained in an earlier study where organization was quantified directed secants image analysis on photomicrographs. In this study the orientation within individual lamellia is quantified by average orientation of the collagen molecules within a defined volume of a single lamellar as measured by the PM-SHG-I. Lamellar boundaries can be identified through the SHG intensity images, and confirmed through co-registration with photomicrographs of the same region. The orientation within the lamellar is quantified by the polarization angle of the maximum second harmonic intensity. PM-SHG-I offers several advantages as compared with the method of directed secants: first, it is nondestructive, allowing repeated measurements of the same tissue; second, images are captured on the order of seconds and capable of obtaining information up to a depth of 200-300 microns, thus allowing for real-time assessment of load damage; third, organization is measured at a much higher resolution, as it is based on disorder within the molecular arrays of a single lamella.Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 02/2004; 7:4982-5. DOI:10.1109/IEMBS.2004.1404377
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ABSTRACT: This study assessed the changes in blood flow volume in elderly hemiplegic patients before and after rehabilitation training. Total hemoglobin accumulation (blood flow volume) was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in both the affected and unaffected gastrocnemius muscles before and after walking. In the gastrocnemius on the affected side, the blood flow volume was larger during the recovery period than during the rest period, and the blood flow volume did not decrease during the recovery period after the subjects walked a corridor. By contrast, the blood flow volume recovered faster on the unaffected side than on the affected side. After the subjects walked the stairs, the blood flow volume increased in the gastrocnemius muscles on both sides. These results suggested that the level of training involved in walking a corridor was too light for the unaffected side, although it was effective for the affected side. In our subjects, walking the stairs was effective rehabilitation training for both the unaffected and affected sides. Our results suggested that NIRS was an objective tool useful for planning rehabilitation training.Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 02/2004; 7:4815-7. DOI:10.1109/IEMBS.2004.1404332