Perception, attitudes and beliefs, and openness to change: Implications for older driver education
ABSTRACT With a rapidly aging population, strategies for improving driver safety are beginning to emerge that focus on changing driving behaviors and knowledge. We examined the perceptions of risk, beliefs and attitudes, and openness to change of 86 older participants voluntarily attending a driver education program. It appeared that most people attending these sessions were not necessarily concerned about their own driving, safety or abilities, but were interested in maintaining mobility. They were conservative and reasonably consistent in their attitudes toward traffic regulations and safe driving practices. Some gender differences emerged with more men than women being resistant to changing their driving habits, more men than women reporting that they drive after consuming alcohol and more women than men identifying a role for their families in decision-making regarding driving cessation. This suggests that educational material may need to be targeted differently for men and women. It is anticipated that psychosocial factors related to driving such as driver perception, beliefs and openness to change will be useful for maximizing the fit between education program content and outcomes.
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- "Driving cessation, whether voluntary or involuntary, may result in reduced mobility, increased isolation, and declines in physical and mental health (Bonnel 1999; Burkhardt 2000; Johnson 1999; Ragland et al. 2004), making the loss of a driver's license profound in the context of other substantive losses in later life. Our earlier work (Tuokko et al. 2007) suggested that older adults who voluntarily attend driver education sessions were not necessarily planning to change their driving behavior but were, more generally, interested in maintaining their skills and mobility. Taken in the context of a social science theory such as the transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM; Prochaska and DiClemente 1982), these people might be considered " precontemplative " or " contemplative, " because most indicated that they would consider changing their behavior sometime in the future. "
ABSTRACT: Abstract Objectives: To examine the change in cognitive processing as measured by consciousness raising and attitudes toward driving following educational interventions for older adults. Methods: Older adults who viewed a research-based applied theatre production about older driver safety (n = 110) were compared to those who were exposed to a print-based publication available to all drivers (n = 100). Results: After viewing the play developed with input from older adults and others, older adult viewers' attitudes toward driving shifted in a manner consistent with an increased openness or willingness to consider changing their driving behavior. Conversely, after reading the print-based materials, the older adults felt more empowered to continue drive. Conclusions: Demonstrating that an intervention, that takes into account the views of older drivers, can lead to attitudinal outcomes that differ from those achieved with typical "just the facts" programs is an important step in understanding how program content and format affect outcomes. Future interdisciplinary work such as this may enhance our capabilities to understand more about the processes involved in influencing change in attitudes and behaviors.Traffic Injury Prevention 12/2014; 16(6). DOI:10.1080/15389588.2014.992067 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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- "However, these associations need to be verified in future studies as they are not supported by the current literature (Marottoli et al., 1998). Avoidance behaviors are previously reported as reduced mileage or avoiding complex traffic situations (Ball et al., 1998; Charlton et al., 2003; Tuokko et al., 2007). This study further supports that self-reported avoidance behaviors are more common among older female drivers compared to older male drivers and opens plausible research opportunities to further explore complexities associated with this phenomenon. "
ABSTRACT: Research studies typically consider older drivers as a homogenous group and do not report on the influence of gender on driving performance. Prior studies report that females are over-represented in crashes compared to males, caused by errors of yielding, gap acceptance, and speed regulation, all of which are assessed in a comprehensive driving evaluation (CDE). In a sample of 294 community dwelling older drivers, we examined and compared specific and total driving errors of both genders, and determined predictors of gender-specific driving errors and pass/fail outcomes who completed a CDE assessed by a certified driving rehabilitation specialist. No differences in specific or total number of driving errors on the CDE were found between older males (Mean age 73.4±6.0) and older females (Mean age 73.8±5.7). Education, days of driving, Useful Field of View™ (UFOV), Rapid Paced Walk Test (RPW) and the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) were all independent predictors of failing a road test for both genders (p<0.05). However, older females were 22% less likely than older males to fail an on-road test. Within group comparisons showed that older males and females >75 years were 3.2 and 3.5 times more likely to fail the on-road test compared to younger males and females (aged between 63 and 75), respectively. Our findings suggest that focusing on older old (75+) and old-old (85+) age groups may be more efficient for future investigations of driving performance.Accident; analysis and prevention 11/2012; 61. DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2012.10.010 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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- "Providing feedback regarding such abilities may facilitate appropriate self-monitoring, perhaps leading to modification of driving self- regulation. Some research appears to support the concept that providing feedback regarding a variety of drivingrelated abilities may lead older adults to modify their driving behaviors (Holland & Rabbitt, 1992; McKenna & Myers, 1997; Owsley, Stalvey, & Phillips, 2003; Tuokko et al., 2007). In a sample of older adults that included some participants with visual and auditory impairment, 1 month after receiving feedback about sensory abilities, two thirds of participants reported making compensatory changes in their driving habits (Holland & Rabbitt, 1992 ). Owsley and colleagues found that visually impaired drivers who received an educational intervention regarding visual abilities also reported more frequent self-regulatory practices. "
ABSTRACT: In 129 community-dwelling older adults, feedback regarding qualification for an insurance discount (based on a visual speed of processing test; Useful Field of View) was examined as a prospective predictor of change in self-reported driving ability, driving avoidance, and driving exposure over 3 months, along with physical, visual, health, and cognitive variables. Multiple regression models indicated that after controlling for baseline scores on the outcome measures, failure to qualify was a significant predictor of increased avoidance over 3 months (p = .02) but not change in self-rated driving ability or exposure. Female gender (p = .03) was a significant predictor of subsequent lower self-rated driving ability. Overall, the findings of this study provide support for the role of feedback in the self-monitoring of older adults' driving behavior through avoidance of challenging driving situations but not through driving exposure or self-rated driving ability.The Gerontologist 11/2010; 51(3):367-78. DOI:10.1093/geront/gnq082 · 3.21 Impact Factor