With a rapidly aging population, strategies for improving driver safety are beginning to emerge that focus on changing driving behaviors and knowledge. We examined the perceptions of risk, beliefs and attitudes, and openness to change of 86 older participants voluntarily attending a driver education program. It appeared that most people attending these sessions were not necessarily concerned about their own driving, safety or abilities, but were interested in maintaining mobility. They were conservative and reasonably consistent in their attitudes toward traffic regulations and safe driving practices. Some gender differences emerged with more men than women being resistant to changing their driving habits, more men than women reporting that they drive after consuming alcohol and more women than men identifying a role for their families in decision-making regarding driving cessation. This suggests that educational material may need to be targeted differently for men and women. It is anticipated that psychosocial factors related to driving such as driver perception, beliefs and openness to change will be useful for maximizing the fit between education program content and outcomes.
"However, some studies demonstrated an association between self-reported abilities and driving performance (Eby et al. 2003; Molnar et al. 2010), whereas others did not (Bédard et al. 2011; Scialfa et al. 2010); evaluations of such programs are complex. Knowing more about psychosocial factors related to driving such as driver perceptions, beliefs, and openness to change would help to maximize the fit between education program content and outcomes (Tuokko et al. 2007) and further improve older drivers' skills. Even in situations where it may not be possible to improve older drivers' skills, compensatory strategies can be used to enhance safe driving. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This pilot study aimed to verify the impact of the awareness tool for safe and responsible driving (OSCAR) on older adults' (1) interest, openness, and knowledge about the abilities and compensatory strategies required for safe driving; (2) awareness of changes that have occurred in their own driving abilities; and (3) actual utilization of compensatory strategies.
A preexperimental design, including a pretest (T0) and posttest (T1) 8 to 10 weeks after exposure to the intervention, was used with 48 drivers aged between 67 and 84. The participants had a valid driving license and drove at least once a week.
Overall, the results demonstrate that OSCAR increased interest, openness, and knowledge about the abilities and compensatory strategies of older drivers (P <.01). After exposure to OSCAR, the majority of the participants confirmed that changes had occurred in at least one of their abilities. Moreover, half of the older drivers reported having started using 6 or more compensatory strategies.
In summary, in addition to increasing older adults' interest, openness, and knowledge to discussion about driving, OSCAR also improved awareness of the changes that could negatively impact safe driving and enhanced utilization of compensatory strategies. While promoting safe driving and the prevention of crashes and injuries, this intervention could ultimately help older adults maintain or increase their transportation mobility. More studies are needed to further evaluate OSCAR and identify ways to improve its effectiveness.
"Driving cessation, whether voluntary or involuntary, may result in reduced mobility, increased isolation, and declines in physical and mental health (Bonnel 1999; Burkhardt 2000; Johnson 1999; Ragland et al. 2004), making the loss of a driver's license profound in the context of other substantive losses in later life. Our earlier work (Tuokko et al. 2007) suggested that older adults who voluntarily attend driver education sessions were not necessarily planning to change their driving behavior but were, more generally, interested in maintaining their skills and mobility. Taken in the context of a social science theory such as the transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM; Prochaska and DiClemente 1982), these people might be considered " precontemplative " or " contemplative, " because most indicated that they would consider changing their behavior sometime in the future. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
To examine the change in cognitive processing as measured by consciousness raising and attitudes toward driving following educational interventions for older adults.
Older adults who viewed a research-based applied theater production about older driver safety (n = 110) were compared to those who were exposed to a print-based publication available to all drivers (n = 100).
After viewing the play developed with input from older adults and others, older adult viewers' attitudes toward driving shifted in a manner consistent with an increased openness or willingness to consider changing their driving behavior. Conversely, after reading the print-based materials, the older adults felt more empowered to continue drive.
Demonstrating that an intervention that takes into account the views of older drivers can lead to attitudinal outcomes that differ from those achieved with typical "just the facts" programs is an important step in understanding how program content and format affect outcomes. Future interdisciplinary work such as this may enhance our capabilities to understand more about the processes involved in influencing change in attitudes and behaviors.
"In other words, those who had more accidents have obtained a higher risk taking score. In the study carried out by Lin et al. upon the impact of accident experience on risk taking in young persons, they concluded that those who have accident experience have obtained a higher risk taking score based on risk taking factors. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: World Health Organization findings shows that up to year 2020 the number of fatality due to driving accidents will increases up to 65%, which is 80% is in developing countries. Iran has one of the highest rates of road traffic accident mortality rate in the world.
The cross-sectional study was carried out in the center and west of Iran upon 540 ordinary and taxi drivers who were driving regularly from bus terminals and the travel agencies to other cities. Data collection tool is a questionnaire that measuring driving risk taking by two items of risky driving behaviors and risk taking attitudes.
The results of this study showed that the averages of risk driving behaviors scores were higher than the average of risk taking attitudes scores. The results of logistic regression test showed that the risky driving behaviors can be a predictor of driving accidents due to individuals' risk taking (P = 0.014). Among all these variables, attitude toward rule violations and speeding, aggressive driving and violation of the road laws respectively are important predictive of drivers' risk taking (P < 0.0010).
Although attitude toward risk taking has been located at a low level by different ways, a desired result was not obtained from the reduction of those high risky behaviors; in fact, high-rate of accidents and traffic incidence in Iran indicates this matter well.
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