Global update on defining and treating high-risk localized prostate cancer with leuprorelin: a Japanese perspective--the effect of primary androgen deprivation therapy on stage C prostate cancer.
ABSTRACT Stage C prostate cancer, where the tumour has extended beyond the capsule of the prostate, is typically a high-risk disease. According to the National Cancer Institute Physician Data Query the treatments of choice for stage C disease comprise external beam radiation therapy (with or without the addition of adjuvant hormone therapy), androgen deprivation by either surgery or hormone therapy, radical prostatectomy, or careful observation. From 2001, the Japanese Urological Association initiated computer-based registration of all patients with prostate cancer in Japan. Data show that overall, 57% of all patients and 46% of those with T1c to T3 disease had primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT). Similarly, the Japanese Prostate Cancer Group undertook a large-scale epidemiological surveillance study in Japan and found that the most commonly used hormone therapy is PADT, regardless of disease stage. To date, two randomized, controlled trials of the effect of PADT on stage C prostate cancer in elderly (> or =75 years old) patients have been undertaken in Japan. The results showed that patients with locally advanced prostate cancer treated with PADT are likely to have a life-expectancy similar to that of the normal population. In one study, combined androgen blockade (CAB) with leuprorelin plus chlormadinone appeared to prolong time to disease progression when compared with leuprorelin monotherapy, but there was no difference in survival between these treatment groups. In a second study CAB with an luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist plus bicalutamide was found to prolong time to progression when compared with LHRH agonist monotherapy, but survival results for these regimens are still awaited.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of primary hormone therapy for localized or locally advanced prostate cancer, by analysing the 10-year survival rates for men with localized or locally advanced prostate cancer treated with primary hormone therapy or prostatectomy. Between February 1993 and March 1995, men with T1b, T1c or T2-3 N0M0 prostate cancer were enrolled. In all, 176 men who had a prostatectomy were assigned to Study 1 and were given adjuvant luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist; 151 men who did not have a prostatectomy were assigned to Study 2 and had LHRH agonist monotherapy or combined androgen blockade. They were followed until death, loss to follow-up, or until the end of the observation period (31 March 2004). We analysed all cases in each study as a single population, and compared Study 1 with Study 2. The mean patient ages were 67.2 years in Study 1 and 75.7 years in Study 2. During a median of 10.4 years of follow-up, 20 men in Study 1 and 17 in Study 2 died from prostate cancer, and 21 men in Study 1 and 50 in Study 2 died from other causes. In Study 1, the 10-year overall survival rate was 73% and the 10-year cause-specific survival rate was 86%, vs 41% and 78% in Study 2. Overall survival curves were similar to expected survival curves in both studies. There was no significant difference between studies in cause-specific survival. The progression of prostate cancer was retarded by primary hormone therapy in men with localized or locally advanced prostate cancer. With primary hormone therapy or prostatectomy, the men had a life-expectancy similar to that of the normal population.BJU International 10/2006; 98(3):573-9. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hormone therapy for prostate cancer has empirically prevailed in Japan. We planned to evaluate the trends and outcome of hormone therapy for establishing an adequate guideline. Patients with prostate cancer who were initially treated by hormone therapy were registered through the J-CaP registration system. This report summarizes the background factors. From January 2001 to October 2003, 17,872 patients were registered from 395 institutes throughout Japan. The background factors of 17,312 patients were analyzed. The 17,872 patients were estimated as composing more than half of newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients in Japan. Of these, 22.9, 35.1, 32.9 and 8.6% belonged to T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. For the purposes of hormone therapy, 77.5% was primary hormone therapy. Neoadjuvant setting and adjuvant setting were 18.1 and 4.3%, respectively. About 60% of the hormone therapy was combined hormone therapy with LH-RHa plus anti-androgens. Irrespective of patients' age, TNM, stage of illness, or histological background, the majority of prostate cancer patients in Japan are receiving hormone therapy. It is necessary to evaluate whether this trend is merely a continuation of past experience of Japanese urologists or if there is a difference in the profile of effect and side-effect in the case of Japanese patients compared to therapy given in Westerners.Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 07/2004; 34(6):329-36. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate bicalutamide (Casodex) 80 mg as a component of maximum androgen blockade (MAB) in Japanese patients with previously untreated advanced prostate cancer. 205 patients with previously untreated stage C/D prostate cancer were randomized (1:1) to receive once-daily bicalutamide 80 mg or placebo, each combined with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist. Primary study variables were the 12 week prostate-specific antigen (PSA) normalization (i.e. PSA level <or=4 ng/ml) rate, the 12 week overall tumor response rate (proportion with a partial response or better) and the proportion of withdrawals due to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) at follow-up. This interim analysis was undertaken after a minimum of 6 months' follow-up (median 15 months). The 12 week PSA normalization rate was 79.4% for MAB and 38.6% for LHRH agonist monotherapy (P < 0.001). The 12 week overall tumor response rate was 77.5 and 65.3%, respectively (P = 0.063). The withdrawal rate due to ADRs was 8.8% and 10.9%, respectively. There were differences in favor of MAB over monotherapy with respect to time to treatment failure (TTTF) (P = 0.038) and time to progression (TTP) (P = 0.016). There have been too few deaths (n = 10) to analyze survival. The profiles of adverse events and ADRs were broadly similar in the two treatment groups. In Japanese patients with advanced prostate cancer, first-line treatment with bicalutamide 80 mg in combination with an LHRH agonist is superior to LHRH agonist monotherapy in terms of the antitumor response at 12 weeks, and also time to treatment failure and progression, and does not compromise treatment safety. The study is ongoing.Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2004; 34(1):20-8. · 1.90 Impact Factor